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Manuals of Technology. 


Prof. Ayrton^ RR.S^ and R. Wormell^ JD.Sc, M.A. 








Cassell & Company, limited: 


[all rights reserved.] 
' 1883. 

■ •. " 1 


B' •- | 

'~%@£)@K)3£)@K^^ ^§ 


In this manual an attempt has been made to place before 
the reader, as briefly and completely as possible, the prin- 
ciples of design in textile fabrics in its broadest sense, 
and to deal with the subject in such a manner as to com- 
bine with the question of decoration that of the proper 
structure of the cloth. 

The practice of paying little or no attention to the 
proper structure of the fabric, and its suitability for 
the purposes to which it is to be applied in the ar- 
rangement of designs, is unfortunately far too common, 
and is the cause of a considerable waste of labour 
and expense in our manufacturing concerns. This 
may, perhaps, be to some extent due to the method 
of training those who are to be the designers, and also, 
to an even greater extent, to the fact that there has 
hitherto been no systematic treatment of the question. 
Most men engaged in the manufacture of textile fabrics 
have confined their attention to one branch, or to one 
class of goods, and have become proficient from practice 
only in that class. Their success has been entirely 
dependent upon the amount of attention they have paid 
to the particular class of fabrics they were engaged in 
manufacturing, or to the accuracy of their observations, 
and not to any — or, at the most, only to a slight — 
degree upon any systematic method or basis for their 
work. In the textile trades, as in every other, the 


"rule of thumb," or guess-work, must rapidly disappear, 
and be replaced by system. Fabrics must be made, as 
other articles are, with a proper regard to ornament, 
utility, and economy; the designer must consider both 
the end and the means, and nothing but this will secure 
success to him. 

The rapid disappearance of the old apprentice system, 
the growth of large establishments, and the consequent 
subdivision of labour, accompanied by the ever-increasing 
demand for fabrics of a more artistic character to be 
applied to useful purposes, make it imperative upon the 
would-be designer or manufacturer to understand more 
fully than he has done in the past the principles upon 
which fabrics should be constructed, so as to fulfil all 
the necessary conditions. He must work on sound 
principles and leave nothing to chance. 

The reader must not expect to go through this work 
in a hurried manner, or to thoroughly grasp all the 
details of the subject without further effort. Within 
the compass of this volume it is, of course, impossible 
to enter into all the particulars which would make the 
student at once perfectly conversant with the whole ; 
but an effort has been made to lay down the leading 
principles clearly and completely, and to guide the 
student generally, rather than to enter too closely into 
minor details, which can only be sufficiently mastered 
by actual practice in the mill or worskshop. 

T. R A. 




CHAPTER I. page 

Textile Fabrics and their Uses 1 

The Structure of Threads 20 

Ornamentation of Fabrics in their Structure . . 29 

Stripes, Checks, and Figures from Combination of 

Different Twills 50 


Douele Cloths . . . ' 73 


Figured Cloths 112 

Gauze Fabrics 162 

Pile or Plush Fabrics 194 


General Comparison of the Different Classes and 

Styles of Fabric 225 

Glossary 241 

Index .'•••' 244 


Plate I To face page 124 

II » 126 

III „ 144 

„ IV „ H7 

„ V M H9 

,„ VI „ 150 

„ VII „ 153 

„ VIII „ 154 

„ IX „ 165 

X „ 182 

Design m Textile Fabrics. 



1. The Objects to be kept in View in designing 
Textile Fabrics. — The first objects we must set before us 
in designing textile fabrics are the uses to which they 
are to be applied, and the purposes they are intended to 
serve. Exactly in the same manner, if we are designing 
a bridge, a house, a mill, or a machine, our first concern 
must be to secure all the conditions of strength, con- 
venience of arrangement, and other requisites, which will 
make it most suitable for the purposes to which it will 
be put. This having been done, we may then proceed 
to ornament the structure as we please, always taking 
care that the ornamentation does not in any way detract 
from the conditions of strength and general utility which 
have been our first and foremost aim. It thus follows 
that, in speaking of designing textile fabrics, we do not 
necessarily mean the application of art principles to their 
decoration, but we use the phrase in a more compre- 
hensive sense, not only in reference to the decoration or 
ornamentation of the fabric, but also to its structure. 
If that is so, we must have what is commonly termed 
a theoretical basis upon which to build our fabric, and it 
may be as well to inquire, before going further — What is 
this theoretical basis ? or 

2. What is the theory of the structure of fabrics ? 
- — A theory may be described as a supposition with 


regard to cause and effect — or the connection and sequence 
of phenomena — which embraces all the circumstances 
known to attend their occurrence. A theory is tested 
by trial and observation. It must be founded upon 
actual knowledge of things — of the end to be attained, 
and the means which have been employed, not only by 
ourselves but by others, to attain the object at which 
we are aiming, or a similar object. 

Upon this basis, then, we may at once proceed to 
examine into the theory of the manufacture of cloth, or 
" Design in Textile Fabrics." Before we can enter into 
the question of the structure of fabrics, or deal with the 
materials from which they are made, we must deter- 
mine what are the purposes they are intended to serve, 
and the qualities or properties they must possess to 
ensure those purposes being served in the best possible 
manner. It may, in the first place, be said that one of 
the chief uses of textile fabrics is as a covering for the 
body, to keep it warm, or to protect it from the incle- 
mency of the weather ; or it may be that the covering is 
merely ornamental, and need not be of such close texture 
as that which the needs just referred to demand. Again, 
whether the covering be of the purely useful or of the 
purely ornamental character, yet, in all probability, in 
each case it will have to fulfil one condition of usefulness 
— namely, wear. This means that its structure must be 
such as will enable it to bear some strain, and in many 
cases also to resist a considerable amount of friction 
without damage. 

In addition to the fabrics of a purely useful or purely 
ornamental character, we may in many cases be called 
upon to produce fabrics where both qualities are requisite. 
As the artistic taste of the people improves, they are not 
contented with the purely useful ; articles of utility must 
also be made more or less beautiful. We must ornament 
wherever we can, but in introducing the ornament we 
must be careful that we do not do it at the cost of utility. 

We may, then, say that in these considerations of 

Chap. I.] 


utility or ornament we have the groundwork or basis 
of our theory. We have the knowledge of what we 
require, but that is only the first step. Before our 
theory can be complete we must consider how these 
fabrics are to be constructed, the materials from which 
they are to be made, and also, to some extent, the 
mechanical operations involved in their formation ; and, 
being guided by a knowledge of what others have done 
before us, we must, as far as we can, determine the best 
and most economical methods of obtaining given results. 

Textile fabrics may be generally described as a com- 
bination of filaments or threads, interlaced with each 
other in such a manner as to form a texture ; and it is for 
us to ascertain what is the best method of interlacing 
those threads, so as to produce the fabric most adapted to 
our requirements. 

In all cases where utility is to be the first considera- 
tion, the warp and weft threads which form the fabric 
must be so interlaced as to produce all the firmness 
possible, not only so as to be able to bear the greatest 
amount of strain, but also to be able to resist friction. 
In many instances we must also combine with these 
qualities bulk, or thickness of fabric ; consequently, our 
fabric must be constructed so 
as to allow of the requisite 
amount of material being in- 
troduced into it. 

Before going any further 
into the subject, we will see 
how fabrics are constructed, 
and what is the meaning of 
" warp and weft." In Fig. 1 
we have a plan of what is 
known as a plain cloth. It 
will be seen that there are two sets of threads, which 
cross each other at right angles, and interweave alter- 
nately. The threads marked a, or the longitudinal 
threads — or those running in the direction of the length 

Fig. 1. 


of the piece, and which are usually shown on paper in a 
vertical position, are what are termed the warp threads, 
and the transverse threads, 6, are termed the weft 
threads. In all woven fabrics we have these two sets of 
threads to deal with, and the relation which one bears to 
the other, as well as the order of interweaving for the 
purpose of forming patterns, constitute the design of the 

In the plain cloth plan in Fig. 1, it will be seen that, 
although we produce a very firm texture by the manner 
in which the two sets of threads interweave, yet we 
cannot possibly produce a very close texture. Certainly 
the fabric will be strong, each thread supporting the 
other to the utmost, yet it cannot be made sufficiently 
compact, either to produce a heavy fabric or a fabric 
which will retain heat, or keep the body warm to the 
fullest extent. By the very manner in which the threads 
intersect each other, they are prevented from lying per- 
fectly close together ; consequently, the fabric must be, 
in a greater or less degree, perforated. 

3. The Effect of the Yarn upon the Fabric— The 
perforations in a plain cloth will vary greatly under 
certain conditions : for instance, the thicker the threads 
from which the fabrics are made, the larger will be the 
perforations, and the thinner the threads, the smaller the 
perforations. Of course, in such cases the perforations will 
bear exactly the same ratio to the diameter of the thread 
if the relation of warp to weft be the same, but cloth 
made from fine yarns will possess the useful properties in 
a much greater degree in proportion to its weight than 
that made from thick threads. Other considerations will 
also affect the usefulness of the fabric. If we desire to 
produce a fabric of close texture — one which will have 
the perforations reduced to the smallest possible dimen- 
sions and retain the warmth of the body in the highest 
extent — we must use a yarn in which the fibres of which 
it is composed are laid as loosely together as possible. 
We can then, in the mechanical operations of weaving, 

Chap. I.] 


bring those threads closely together, and the looseness of 
the fibres will permit of their spreading out, and so of 
reducing the interstices to the lowest point. 

On the other hand, if the threads are twisted very 
hard — that is, if the threads are made solid and compact — 
they will resist compression in the operation of weaving, 
and, the fibres being held firmly together in the thread, 
there is nothing left to spread out and cover the inter- 
stices ; consequently, we shall have an open fabric, but 
the fibres being firmly interlocked in the thread, we shall 
have a fabric which will bear more strain, and will offer 
also more resistance to friction, than in the other case. 
We must, therefore, obtain one quality in this fabric at 
the cost of some other. 

4.— The Effect of the Twist of the Yarn.— Another 
matter which materially affects the closeness of texture 
in a plain cloth is the direction of the twist of the weft in 
relation to that of the warp. On reference to Fig. 1 it 
will be seen that the two sets of threads when placed 
together in the fabric have the twist running in the 
same direction ; that being so, the fibres — or, if we may 
so term them, the strands — of 
the two sets of threads will 
become embedded into each 
other, and so make a close 
and compact fabric. If, on 
the other hand, the twist of 
the weft be contrary to that 
of the warp when the two are 
placed together, as shown in 
Fig. 2, the threads cannot 
become so intimately con- 
nected, and, consequently, the fabric cannot be so close 
and free from perforations. 

To give an illustration on a large scale. If we take 
two thick cords or ropes, and lay them together at right 
angles to each other, with the twist of both in the same 
direction, we shall find that the thick strands of one 


rope will fall into the hollows between the strands of 
the other, and so the two will occupy the smallest 
possible space ; but if the strands are in opposite direc- 
tions, instead of their falling between each . other, and 
one strand filling the hollow in the other, their ridges 
will come together, and there will be an opening equal 
to the hollows between the strands of both ropes. 
We have, therefore, increased openness in the struc- 
ture of the fabric without a corresponding gain in any 

5. Relations of Warp and Weft, and their Effect 
upon the Fabric. — Up to this point we have been dealing 
only with what may be called a true plain fabric, or a 
fabric in which the weft and warp are equal, or nearly so, 
in their diameters and in the number of ends per inch 
each way ; but we may produce fabrics in which the 
relations of weft to warp are quite altered, and we may do 
this for two purposes — either for obtaining increased 
strength, warmth, and weight, or for ornamentation. 

Suppose we take the class of fabrics commonly known 
as poplins, and which present a corded or ribbed appear- 
ance, the ribs running across the fabric in the direction 
of the weft ; in such fabrics there is a great preponder- 
ance of warp over weft, more especially as regards the 
number of threads per inch. But for the production of 
fabrics of the best type the warp threads are much 
thinner than those of the weft. In fact, although the 
interweaving of weft with warp is precisely the same as 
in the plain cloths with which we have been dealing, the 
alteration in the relative quantities and thickness of weft 
and warp completely changes the texture and appearance 
of the fabric. A plain cloth, in which warp and weft are 
equal, will present an appearance of waviness in both 
warp and weft on the fabric being dissected ; but a 
fabric in which the warp threads predominate largely 
over the weft, so far as ends per inch go, and in which, 
consequently, the warp threads are proportionately 
thinner, would present the weft as a straight line, and 

Chap- t] 


Fig. 3. 

the warp bending round it. A plan of this fabric is 
shown in Fig. 3, and a section in Fig. 4. 

In the plan it will be seen that the weft threads are 
much thicker than the warp threads, and also that the 
latter are placed closely to- 
gether. In some fabrics of 
this type these are placed so 
closely that they are actually 
compressed, and made 
to occupy a space less 
than their true dia- 
meter. It will also be 
seen that the weft 
threads are some dis- 
tance apart. It only 

requires a careful examination of the structure of 
the fabric to ascertain the cause of this, as also 
its effect upon the appearance, as well as upon the 
usefulness of the cloth. 

The warp threads are placed close together, and 
cross between each weft thread, or pick, as it is tech- 
nically termed. The warp is also much thinner 
Fig. 4. than the weft ; as a consequence, no matter how 
much tension may be put upon the warp, either 
in the process of weaving or after the fabric is formed, 
it cannot bend the weft out of its straight line, simply 
because the intervals of space between the warp threads 
are so small, as compared with the thickness of the 
weft, that the weft cannot be bent into them either 
from above or below ; or, in other words, the close- 
ness of the warp threads forms a continuous bed 
upon which the weft is laid. Then, with regard to 
the distance apart of the weft threads, or picks, the 
warp crossing between them prevents them from 
coming close together ; each pick being separated from 
the other in this manner produces the ribbed-like 
effect peculiar to this class of fabric. It will be 
evident from the structure of the fabric, the closeness 



[Chap. I. 

of the warp threads, and the strength of the weft that 
this class of cloth is well calculated both to resist wear 
and retain warmth, and there is, probably, no kind of 
fabric which, for the weight of material employed, can 
compare with it in these respects. 

Another class of fabric of a very similar character is 
largely employed for decorative purposes, and to some 
extent also for articles of dress — namely, the cloth com- 
monly known as " repp." Its structure is dif- 
ferent from that of either of the two plain 
cloths of which we have been speaking, though 
possessing one of the chief characteristics of the 
poplin, or gros-grain, type, inasmuch as the 
warp is made to bend round the weft, and 
the weft is laid in perfectly straight lines. 
In Fig. 5 we have a section of what is consi- 
dered the best type of this class. 

Here it will be seen that in both the warp 
and the weft there is a thick and a thin 
thread alternately, and in the operation of 
weaving the thin thread in the warp is held 
very tightly, while the thick thread is held 
very loosely. Again, the thin weft is always 
between the warp threads on the same side of 
Fig. 5. the thin thread, and the thick weft passes 
always on the contrary side of the same 
thread ; the result is that the thick warp — which 
usually consists of several threads put together — 
in consequence of the slight tension upon it, is made to 
bend round the weft threads, and the thin warp is held 
quite or nearly straight, thus producing the clearly- 
defined rib, very .prominent on that side of the fabric 
where the thick weft is, and less so on the other side. 

Again, another class of plain fabric is obtained by a 
reversal of the conditions which produce the poplin — 
that is, the warp threads are thick and the weft thin. 
The warp is held in straight lines, and the weft made to 
bend round it. The plan shown in Fig. 3 may be taken 


as a plan of this class of cloth, as well as the plan of a 
poplin cloth, only that the thick straight threads must be 
taken as warp, and the thin bent threads as weft. The 
section Fig. 4 would also be a section of this cloth, but 
would be a transverse section, the circles showing the 
end of the warp threads and the bent threads being the 
weft. This class, commonly known as cords, is usually 
made with two or more warp threads run together to 
produce the requisite bulk, instead of using one thick 

In the production of the four classes of plain 
fabrics mentioned, great care should be exercised in 
proportioning the warp to the weft, but more espe- 
cially with reference to the poplin and cord. In what 
we have spoken of as the true plain cloth we have 
assumed that warp and weft are equal in quantity, and 
in that case both warp and weft would be slightly 
bent out of the straight line ; each would exert an 
equal power over the other. That being so, if friction 
be applied to the cloth, each set of threads would hold 
the other firmly in its place, and no matter whether 
the friction be applied in the direction of the warp or 
weft, the result would be the same — each would possess 
the same power of resistance. In the other classes it 
would not be so. If we take the poplin type, where we 
have the weft laid straight and the warp bent round it, 
any friction in the direction of the warp threads could 
have little or no effect ; but friction in the direction of 
the weft would have the effect of displacing the warp, 
because* there is nothing to keep them in place except 
their pressure one against another ; they are bent round 
a straight body more or less smooth, and have no support 
except their own pressure. Thus, unless they are 
sufficiently close together to give each other sufficient 
support, the cloth cannot be serviceable as an article of 
dress, or for any other purpose where it will have to 
resist friction. The same remark will apply also to the 
" repp " and " cord " classes, but in the latter the dis- 


placement will be in the weft threads by friction in the 
direction of the warp. 

In all four classes of plain cloth we could only vary 
the weight of cloth by altering the size of thread ; and 
our means of ornamentation are also limited. We can 
only alter the size of cord or rib by the use of different 
sizes of threads ; but we can ornament the fabric by the 
introduction of colour, and that colour we may use in the 
warp only, in the weft alone, or in both warp and weft. 
So far as the use of colour goes in ornamenting plain 
cloths, we have a wide field ; but that is a subject we 
must consider in another chapter. We must first deal 
with the structure of fabrics, and their ornamentation by 
the variation in the interweaving of the threads which 
compose the fabric. 

6. Twilled Fabrics. — We must now discuss the 
structure of other than plain fabrics, and ascertain what 
is the use or value of other methods or systems of con- 
structing cloths. 

The class of fabrics which comes nearest to plain 
cloth is that known as twills or twilled fabrics ; and in 
their production we may have two objects in view — first, 
#icrease of bulk or thickness of fabric ; and second, 
ornamentation. The first and chief difference between 
the structure of this class of cloth and plain cloth is that 
in the latter the warp and weft interweave alternately, 
whereas in twilled fabrics they interweave at such 
intervals as may be required for the formation of the 
pattern. Again, what is termed the complete pattern 
in plain cloth is represented by two ends of warp and 
two picks of weft, while in twilled cloth a greater 
number of ends and picks are required to complete the 
pattern; or, in other words, in all plain cloths, every 
alternate end is a repetition ; the same holds of the picks, 
but in twilled cloths the repetition will occur at longer 
intervals. Fig. 6 is the plan of a twill of a very common 
order, and one regularly in use in fabrics made from all 
kinds of materials. 

Chap. 1.] TWILLED FABRICS. 11 

In this it will be seen that each warp thread passes 
alternately over and under two weft threads or picks, 
and in like manner each weft thread passes alternately 
under and over two warp threads. But each end does 
not pass under and over the 
same two picks, nor does 
each pick pass under or 
over the same two ends, nor 
are they alternate in their 
action, as are the ends and 
picks of plain cloth; but 
they change in regular 
consecutive order; that is, 
if the first end passes over Fig. 6. 

numbers one and two 

picks, the second end passes over numbers two and 
three picks, and so on, each end advancing one pick 
before it rises to the surface, or passes to the back, 
and each pick advancing one end in the same manner. 
This order of changing of the ends and picks will 
have the effect of producing a distinct pattern upon the 
fabric, a species of cord running in a diagonal direction 
across it. But another matter of much more importance 
than the mere pattern is the fact that this order of 
working permits us to introduce more material into the 
fabric, and so make it more bulky and closer in its struc- 
ture. The reason for this is to be found in the simple 
fact that the weft and warp interweaving only at in- 
tervals of two ends or picks permit the two threads 
both of warp and weft to lie closely together, and 
consequently to allow of a greater number per inch to 
be introduced into the fabric than can be done in plain 

True, as we have shown, we may make plain cloths 
in which the warp threads lie perfectly close together, 
and others in which the weft threads lie perfectly close 
together ; but in the one case the weft threads are a con- 
siderable distance apart, and in the other the warp threads 


are a considerable distance apart, whereas in the twill cloth 
the weft and warp both lie equally close together, so 
that we obtain the requisite closeness of texture in both 
directions, and a corresponding increase in the bulk 
of the fabric. Along with this closeness of texture, 
and increased weight or bulk, we also obtain another 
advantage over the plain cloth, namely, that by the 
order of interweaving the warp bends round the weft, 
and the weft round the warp in an equal degree, exactly 
as in the first order of plain cloth. So that if the 
number of threads per inch each way is properly pro- 
portioned to their diameters, and to the order of inter- 
weaving, the fabric will possess the power to resist 
friction, not merely in the same degree as the plain 
cloth of the first order, but in a greater degree propor- 
tionate to the increased quantity of material it contains. 

7. — Alteration of Twill to increase Bulk. — We 
also possess the power of increasing the bulk in a 
great degree by altering the twill so as to inter- 
weave the two sets of threads at greater intervals, 
and just as we increase the intervals we increase the 
number of threads which may be contained in a given 
space. Of course along with this a limit of increased 
usefulness will be reached. We say that we increase the 
powers of resisting friction by the increased material 
employed in the construction of the fabric, but if our 
intervals of interweaving are too great, the two sets of 
threads will to some extent lose their power of support- 
ing each other; we shall have too great a length of 
loose yarn presented on the surface. This yarn being 
composed of fibres, each individual fibre is presented 
for a considerable portion of its length to the wearing 
surface ; and if friction be applied, it may be too readily 
drawn away from its fellows, and so by degrees the thread, 
and ultimately the fabric, becomes weakened. Again, 
no doubt the looseness of the interweaving will reduce the 
power of the fabric to bear a strain ; although a loosely 
interwoven cloth — if the quantity of yarn be properly 

Chap. I.] 



proportioned to the order of interweaving — will still be 
the stronger so far as tensile strength is concerned, than 
one more closely interwoven, yet it will not be so 
strong in proportion to the quantity of material of 
which it is composed ; and if the number of threads in 
a given space, or the diameter of the threads, be not 
properly proportioned to the pattern, the fabric will be 
positively weaker. 

8. Alteration of Twills to increase Strength. — 
Satins. — Quite apart from the question of ornamentation, 
there are certain orders of arrangement in twills which 
may be specially resorted to for the production of fabrics 
which are designed to bear an increased amount of fric- 
tion or strain in one direction or another ; and when we 
are arranging our patterns for the purpose of ornamenta- 
tion, we must not forget the peculiar properties which 
attach themselves to patterns of given classes. 

If we take one class as typical, in order to point out 
the peculiar arrangement and its effect upon the fabric, 
it may serve as a guide to us 
when dealing with patterns 
for ornamenting. This class 
is commonly known as satins 
or broken twills. The pecu- 
liarity of this sort of twills 
is that the order of inter- 
weaving the two sets of 
threads does not follow con- 
secutively, but at intervals, 
especial care being taken 
that at no point do they follow consecutively. An 
example of the simplest kind, and one most commonly 
employed, is shown in Fig. 7. 

In this plan it will be observed that the order of in- 
terweaving is at every fifth end or pick, and that the two 
succeeding picks do not interweave with adjoining ends, 
but at intervals of two ; that is, if number one pick 
pass over the first end of warp, number two will 

Fig. 7. 


pass over the third end, and so on. Now suppose that 
we wish the fabric to be able to bear a great strain 
in the direction of the warp, it will be made with what 
is termed a warp surface. The warp threads will be 
placed as closely together as possible ; certainly they 
should be placed as close to each other as their diameters 
will permit ; and as the weft is inserted, one end will be 
withdrawn from the surface of the fabric, and will bend 
round the weft at the back. As the next pick is inserted 
another end will be withdrawn, the first one returning 
to its original place, but as the ends are not withdrawn 
in consecutive order, the weft is not made to bend round 
the warp in any degree, but remains perfectly straight, 
the warp only being drawn out of its course. That 
being so, the weft threads cannot be laid close together, 
but will always be separated from each other by at 
least the diameter of the warp thread; therefore we 
shall always have a greater number of warp threads per 
inch than of weft threads. Again, if it be desired to 
produce on the fabric a smooth, unbroken surface, with 
no pattern visible, the warp threads may be placed so 
closely together that as one is withdrawn to bend round 
the weft, those on each side of it will close over the 
vacancy and completely hide the point where it has in- 
terwoven with the weft. In that case the number of warp 
threads would be increased in proportion to the number 
of weft, and consequently the fabric will be capable of 
bearing an increased strain upon the warp, or in the direc- 
tion of the length of the piece, but a decreased strain in 
the direction of its width, or of the weft. 

Exactly the same principle will apply to fabrics where 
a weft surface is produced. The warp threads are set 
such a distance apart as will permit of the weft threads 
passing readily between them, and bending round them. 
The weft threads are inserted as closely as their diameters 
will allow, and in some cases so as to pass over and hide 
the point where weft has bent around warp ; and, again, 
in many cases so closely that the weft is compressed, and 

Chap. I.] DOUBLE CLOTHS. 15 

loses its true cylindrical form. In such fabrics the 
greatest strength is in the direction of the weft, just in 
the proportion to the quantity of material employed. 

9. Satins used for Ornamental Purposes. — This 
principle of interweaving is sometimes employed where 
the object is purely ornamental, as in the satins used so 
largely for trimmings and for ladies , dress goods. In such 
cases the first object is to produce a highly lustrous 
surface, perfectly smooth, showing no pattern. Then if 
the fabric is intended to serve an useful purpose, as well 
as to bear strain, we must take care that the material 
which is present in least quantity, whether it be weft or 
warp, shall be of sufficient strength to compensate for 
the absence of quantity ; otherwise the fabric will be able 
to bear strain in one direction only, whereas by proper 
attention to the strength of the material employed we 
may make it able to bear the requisite strain in both 

Although this class of satins is a large one in itself, 
yet we are only considering it here as representing 
a type of structure which may be, and is, used very 
commonly in conjunction with patterns for ornamentation. 
These we shall have to consider more fully in a subse- 
quent chapter. 

10. Double Cloths. — We next come to the considera- 
tion of a different class of fabric, not necessarily different 
in the principle upon which the fabric is constructed, but 
in regard to its use and ornamentation. 

It frequently happens that in producing fabrics in- 
tended to serve special purposes, we cannot obtain the 
requisite weight and bulk of fabric without producing at 
the same time coarseness and openness of structure. If 
we wish to produce a heavy fabric, we have only two 
possible means of doing it — either the use of thick 
bulky threads, or an increased number of fine ones. 
If we use thick bulky threads, our fabric must present 
an appearance of coarseness, no matter what may be the 
order of interweaving ; and we have no possible means of 


reducing the coarseness. If we use fine threads, it is more 
than likely that the order of interweaving will prevent 
the introduction of as many threads as will produce the 
weight of fabric we desire. Then we have no alternative 
but to resort to double cloth ; that is, instead of trying 
to crowd into a given space of a single fabric a number 
of threads, which will necessitate an undue compression 
of each individual thread, and require an immense 
amount of power to do so, and at the same time injure, 
in a greater or less degree, the threads of either warp or 
weft, or both, we must make two fabrics, and bind them 
together in the process of weaving so as to make them 
really one. There are among double cloths, or what are 
commonly known as double cloths, certain classes which 
are not really double cloths, but, more correctly speaking, 
double-faced cloths, that is, there may be one warp and 
two wefts, or one weft and two warps. A true double 
cloth must be really two separate fabrics, each having its 
own warp and weft. The two fabrics are woven at the 
same time, certainly ; they are more or less intermixed 
with each other, but they never lose their individuality, 
whether they are combined for the mere purpose of pro- 
ducing a fabric of a given weight, or for ornamentation, 
or for both combined. So as to obtain readily a clear 
conception of what is really meant by double cloths, we 
will first examine the double-faced cloths. If we turn 
to Fig. 7, we find in that a closely-set warp, inter- 
woven with weft in such a manner that the weft is prac- 
tically invisible on the surface of the fabric. Suppose we 
introduce another warp, and so interweave it with the 
same weft that the weft is contained between the two 
warps ; we shall then have a fabric both sides of which 
present warp only, the weft which binds the two warps 
together being contained between them. This we can 
easily do by taking care to select the point of inter- 
weaving the weft with each warp in such a manner that 
the one warp does not interfere with the other, as shown 
in the section, Fig. 8. 


We have here, then, a ready means of producing a 
fabric which will give increased weight and bulk, 
increased strength to bear strain in the direction of the 

ooAa o o o q$§W) o o 1 'o 

ssssss?' _ ^Ssssssx^ ^SSS^ XSSSS5SSSS. wfb. 


Fig. 8.* 

warp, and a cloth which may be used as a reversible 
article. One side may be of one colour, and the other 
side of a different colour ; or we may use it for the 
purpose of producing an article of dress, one side being 
a fine fabric and the other side a coarser one, to serve 
merely as a lining. 

Then, exactly in the same manner as we may make 
the satin referred to in Fig. 7 to have either the warp or 
the weft predominating, we may have our double-faced 
cloth so as to present weft on both sides instead of warp 
on both sides. In that case we should simply reverse the 
conditions — the warp would be contained between the 
two wefts i the greatest strength will be in the direction 
of the weft. And in the same way we may make one 
side fine and another coarse ; one side in either cloth 
may be highly ornamented, either with colour or in the 
order of interweaving the threads together, and the other 

Fig. 9.* 

side may be quite plain as regards colour, and nearly so 
as regards pattern. Fig. 9 would show a section of a 
fabric having two weft surfaces. 

In the case of a double cloth, as has been said, we 
must employ two separate warps, and also two separate 
wefts, each weft interweaving with its own warp, and 

* In this and other figures, the letters "wp." stand for *' warp," and 
" wf t." " weft." 


consequently each fabric made quite separate and apart 
from the other. Not only may the fabrics be separate, 
but each may be of a different degree of fineness, made 
from a different material, and of a different pattern; 
then the two may be bound together so as to form one 

In cases where we desire to produce a fabric 
of a given weight and degree of fineness, and the 
pattern or order of interweaving we desire to apply to 
the fabric will not enable us to introduce as much 
material as will produce the required weight, we may 
then resort to double cloths, because here we can com- 
bine any two fabrics, and so obtain a greater weight, 
along with fineness, than we can with a single cloth. 
Again, we may make one of the fabrics fine and the other 
coarse, and so produce the required weight at a less cost 
than in a single fabric of the same weight ; and at the 
same time we may secure all the advantages of strength, 
power to resist friction, and to retain warmth as an 
article of clothing, in an even greater degree than in a 
single fabric of the same weight. In many cases cloths 
are made not only double, but three and even fourfold. 
Whenever double cloths are resorted to there is a distinct 
object in view — to produce weight alone, or at a small 
cost, to make a fine surface on a fabric of a given weight, 
to secure additional strength, warmth, and wearing 
powers, or sometimes for the purpose of ornamentation 
solely, by causing the cloths to exchange places and so 
form figures. 

11. Gauze Cloths. — Another class of fabrics, and 
one which differs very materially from each of the 
others, is gauze. This belongs to the purely ornamental 
fabrics. Because of the manner in which it is constructed, 
it will not permit of a close or thick fabric being formed ; 
in fact, it may be said to be of the lace type of 
fabrics. The threads do not merely interweave with 
each other, but they twist round each other in such a 
manner as to form an open perforated fabric. One 


peculiarity of the structure is to give great strength 
for the quantity of material it contains ; but from the 
fact of the threads twisting round each other, the quantity 
of material must be very limited. Although we cannot 
produce in this class of fabrics articles of use, so far as 
their power of retaining warmth is concerned, we have 
probably the widest field for ornamentation, because we 
can combine it with the other orders of working or inter- 
weaving, and so have at our command all the means of 
ornamentation which structure of cloth can give. 

Thus far, we have d^alt with the structure of cloth 
only, so that we might see upon what basis we must 
work for ornamentation. No matter to what purposes 
fabrics are to be applied, we must not in ornamenting 
them detract from their utility; and as the chief mode of 
ornamenting them is in the variations of the order of 
interweaving the threads of which they are composed, 
the structure of the fabric must be the first question to 
consider in applying our ornamentation to it. 

12. Plush or Pile Fabrics. — We have not yet referred 
to ornamenting by the introduction of additional threads, 
these threads being arranged in such a manner as to 
form figures or patterns, or it may be to form what is 
termed pile or plush. By the use of such threads we 
have an unlimited field for ornamentation, without in 
any way detracting from the usefulness of the fabric, but 
in the great majority of cases really adding materially to 
its strength, and making it more useful. 

We have now so far developed our theory as to have 
determined the common principle of structure of fabrics, 
and in a general way the qualities or properties each 
variety of structure must possess, so as to suit it for the 
purposes to which it is to be applied. 

20 [Chap. II. 



13. Relation between Thread and Cloth. — Im- 
mediately connected with the structure of the cloth, 
and really exerting considerable influence upon it, is the 
structure of the threads of which it is composed. Not 
only will this affect it so far as its usefulness goes, but 
it will also largely affect the power of ornamenting. 

It may appear out of place in a work on Design in 
Textile Fabrics to enter into the question of the 
structure of threads and the fibres from which they are 
made ; but as they affect in such a degree the structure of 
the cloth, we must deal with it before we can have a 
thorough comprehension of our power of varying that 
structure and ornamenting it. 

14. — We may begin by asking, " What is a thread?" 
A thread is said to be " a filament composed of fibres 
twisted together or otherwise." Thus, before we enter 
into a detailed examination of the structure of the 
thread itself, we will examine very briefly the chief 
characteristics of the fibres from which it is made. The 
fibres most largely used in the manufacture of textile 
fabrics are wool, cotton, silk, and flax, and each possesses 
peculiar properties which give it a special and particular 

15. — If we examine a lock of wool as it comes 
from the back of the sheep, the first thing which will 
attract our attention is a peculiar waviness or crimpiness 
in the lock. If we separate a single fibre from the rest, 
we shall find that it is waved in the same manner, and 
also that the waves are very regular throughout. If we 
carry our examination further, and place the fibre under 


a microscope, we shall find the whole surface covered , 
with scales, the scales forming a series of rings round 
the fibre, and all pointing from root to tip. We shall 
also find that the fibre is a hollow tube filled with a 
granulated liquid. It is the wave and scale of the wool 
which give it its peculiar value. In the preparation for 
spinning, the fibres are intermixed in such a manner 
that the directions of the scales are as much opposed to 
each other as possible; that is, the fibres are placed 
root to tip and tip to root. As they are spun, the scales 
of the opposing fibres engage with each other, and become 
interlocked, and the more the thread is spun the more 
firmly do they hold each other, and so make a strong 
thread ; but the spinning property, or the readiness to 
form a thread, is not the only value of these scales. 
After the fabric is formed most woollen goods undergo 
a process of milling or felting ; that is, the fibres 
are made to interlock with each other more firmly, and 
consequently the fabric becomes more close and compact. 
In this operation the waves or crimps of the fibre are 
valuable as well as the scales. To cause the felting to 
take place, the cloth is moistened with a strong solution, 
consisting largely of soap, and pressure is applied. The 
result is the fibres are straightened out ; the scales of 
opposing fibres engage with each other. As the pressure 
is removed, the natural spring of the fibre asserts itself : 
it tries to return to its original wavy condition ; in doing 
so the fibres are drawn more closely together. The 
pressure is again applied, and the operation repeated. 
By degrees the fibres become so closely intermixed 
that the threads lose their individuality, and the cloth 
becomes one compact solid mass. To assist this operation 
of felting, where it is required in a great degree, the 
thread must be specially constructed ; and it will be 
very evident that when the cloth is operated upon in 
this manner, whatever pattern existed mast be, in a 
great measure, lost. 

Different classes and qualities of wool differ very 


much in the degree in which they possess those waves 
and scales, and consequently in their value for the pro- 
duction of fabrics of given characters. 

16. — Cotton, which is a vegetable fibre, presents a 
very different appearance from wool ; it is really a thin, 
collapsed tube, and under the microscope appears like a 
ribbon more or less twisted. These twists in the fibre — 
which is of a very soft, pliable nature — are valuable as 
giving strength to the thread by their friction upon each 

17. — Silk is a straight, smooth fibre, very highly 
polished, and when magnified, presents somewhat the ap- 
pearance of a glass rod. It is very soft and pliable, and 
lends itself readily to the formation of a thread. 

18. — Flax is a vegetable fibre and has an appear- 
ance something like long grass ; it is cylindrical in form, 
and with knots at intervals, exactly as we often see it in 
canes or long grass. 

Although we have here four classes of fibre, each is 
capable of being made into two distinct kinds of thread, 
and it is the formation of this thread which so materially 
affects the formation, or at least the ornamentation, of 
the fabric. 

19. Preparing and Spinning the Fibres into Yarn. 
Woollen Yarn. — If we deal first with the preparation 
and spinning of wool, it will enable us v to have a clearer 
conception of the preparation and spinning of the other 
fi bres. 

The first process after the wool has been washed to 
free it from its impurities, is the separation and straight- 
ening of the fibres, and this is equally necessary for 
the production of both classes of yarn made from wool, 
although the mode of dealing with long wool in the first 
operation is very different from that of dealing with 
short wools. In the separation and straightening of 
the fibres of the latter, a carding machine is employed. 
This machine consists of a series of cylinders covered 
with cards, or finely set teeth ; these cylinders revolve in 

Chap. II.] WOOLLEN YARN. 23 

different directions, and at different speeds. They are 
placed so near each other that as the wool is carried for- 
ward by one upon its teeth, it is caught by the teeth of 
the other, and so, by degrees, each fibre is separated from 
the other, but there is little or no attempt to secure the 
parallelism of the fibres ; they are simply separated. 

If the wool is intended for the production of what is 
termed a woollen thread, it is passed through two or 
three of these carding machines, according to the quality 
of yarn to be produced, and as it comes off the last 
machine it is condensed or reduced to thick rope-like 
threads, and from there it passes to the mule to be spun. It 
must be remembered that in passing through the carding 
machines, the chief object has been the separation of the 
fibres, without much regard to their parallelism. When 
the thread formed by the condenser is placed upon the 
mule it is passed through a pair of rollers, and thence to 
the spindle. This spindle is carried upon a carriage 
which alternately recedes from and advances towards the 
rollers through which the thread has been passed. 
Having attached the thread to the spindle with the 
carriage brought close up to the rollers, the carriage is 
made to recede, at the same time the spindles commence 
to revolve, and so twist the thread ; the rollers also re- 
volve and give off yarn. After the carriage has travelled 
a given distance the rollers stop, and consequently cease 
the delivery of yarn. The carriage still continues to re- 
cede, and consequently draws out, or attenuates, the 
thread. At the same time the spindles are continuing 
to revolve and twist the yarn, so that the process of at- 
tenuating or drawing out the thread and twisting go 
on at the same time. The result of this is that the 
longest fibres composing the thread, and those most 
nearly approaching parallelism form the core or centre 
of the thread, and the short fibres, and those which have 
not been laid parallel, become partly embedded in the 
thread, and partly project from it, so that the thread 
presents a rough appearance with fibres projecting from 


it all round its circumference, and throughout its entire 

20. Inequality of Woollen Thread. — Another feature 
of woollen threads is the inequality of thickness. In 
the preparation of the wool for spinning no means are 
provided, except in the feeding of the wool to the 
carding machines, to insure equality. And, again, in 
the actual process of spinning on the mule there is a 
tendency rather to increase than diminish the inequalities. 
As the twist is being put in the thread by the revolu- 
tions of the spindles, it will exercise more power over 
the thin than the thick portions of the thread, and so 
make it firmer, and consequently of less diameter than 
the portions over which it exercises less power. 

If we take a thread and make a section of it at 
points representing the various thicknesses or diameters, 
the area of these sections will vary as the squares of 
their diameters, therefore the power of the twist over 
these portions will be in the direct ratio of the area of 
their sections. True, a certain amount of equalisation 
will take place as a result of this varying power of the 
twist, and of the operations of drawing and twisting 
occurring simultaneously. As the thin portions be- 
come firmly twisted they will naturally resist the draw- 
ing process, so that from the moment these thin places 
have become sufficiently firm to resist the drawing 
action, the attenuation will be confined to the thick por- 
tions, but the latter will not be reduced to the proportions 
of the thin parts, which all the time are receiving more 
and more twist, and as a consequence, although they 
retain all the fibres, or have none drawn from them, are 
still becoming thinner owing to the compression of the 
fibres by being more firmly twisted. 

21. Advantage of Structure of Woollen Threads. — 
We may now see what advantages or disadvantages this 
type of thread possesses in the production of fabrics of 
given* character. From its very unevenness, and what 
we may term roughness, from the projecting fibres upon 

Chap. II.] WORSTED YARN. 25 

its surface, it is unfitted for the production of fabrics 
where pattern is to be formed by the interweaving of the 
threads, because the loose, fibrous character of the thread 
will tend to hide any pattern so produced, and, added to 
that, the inequalities in its diameter will tend to make 
the pattern appear very irregular. On the other hand, 
where the fabrics have to undergo the process of milling 
or felting, the loose, fibrous character of the thread is 
a great advantage, because the fibres of one thread 
can become readily interlocked with those of another 
and so assist to the utmost the process of felting. 
Again, there is a further tendency, in consequence of the 
threads losing their individuality, to lose or hide any 
pattern in the fabric ; so that we may say that the loose, 
fibrous woollen thread is specially suitable for the 
manufacture of close, felted cloths, which will give fine 
texture, firm compactness of structure, great power of 
retaining warmth and of resisting strain or friction, but 
not the power of producing patterns by the interweaving 
of the threads. 

22. Worsted Yarn. — We will now glance briefly at 
the structure of the second class of thread made from 
wool, or what is commonly known as worsted. It is 
usually supposed that the chief difference between 
woollen and worsted is that the former is made from 
short wool exclusively and the latter from long wool. 
In reality, large quantities of worsted are made from 
wool of exactly the same class and quality as woollen 
yarns. Certainly, much shorter wool can be spun into 
woollen than can be spun into worsted, but the difference 
in the length of wool does not constitute the difference 
in the two threads. 

In preparing the wool for spinning into worsted 
yarns, the first process, as in that of woollen yarn, is the 
separation of the fibres, and, indeed, where short wools 
are employed, upon practically the same machine, but 
accompanying or immediately following the process of 
separation, the fibres are drawn parallel to each other. 


The wool passes through several machines for the sole 
purpose of obtaining this parallelism; when that has 
been accomplished as far as possible the wool is 
" combed " — that is, the wool is passed to a machine 
which draws it through fine steel combs, which further 
ensures the parallelism of the fibres, and at the same 
time takes away all the short fibres which, owing to their 
shortness, are incapable of being straightened out, so 
that we have all our fibres laid straight and parallel, and 
at the same time all the very short fibres removed, and 
we retain for the yarn we are about to spin only the 
longest and straightest fibres. After the process of 
combing commences a process of equalisation and attenua- 
tion. The wool is drawn from the comb in a thick 
rope, or "sliver." A number of these slivers are put 
together, passed through a series of combs for the 
purpose of preserving, and, if necessary, increasing, the 
parallelism of the fibres, and drawn out to the thickness 
of one or less than one of the original slivers. This 
process of equalisation goes on until in many cases the 
last thread has been drawn out some millions of times, 
so that any inequalities in one of the original slivers has 
been neutralised by inequalities in other slivers. After 
the process of equalisation is complete, it undergoes a 
process of attenuation, or further drawing out, and is 
then passed to the spinning frame. Worsted yarns are 
usually spun upon the " throstle " frame. This machine 
is provided with a series of drawing rollers, which by 
their varying speed further reduce, or draw out, the 
thread before the operation of twisting commences ; it is 
then twisted and wound upon the bobbin at the same 
time. But in this the spinning and drawing out do not 
take place simultaneously as in woollen, but successively ; 
consequently, in whatever position the fibres have been 
laid in the drawing they will not be disturbed in the 
spinning, and as we have taken every precaution in the 
preparation of the yarn for spinning to ensure the 
parallelism of the fibres, they will still retain that 


position. Further, the thread has been equalised as 
far as possible ; therefore, when spun, we may expect 
great regularity in its diameter. 

23. Advantages of Structure of Worsted Threads. 
— We have here, then, a thread of great regularity in ite 
diameter, with all its fibres laid parallel and nearly ol 
the same length. It will, therefore, possess great and 
tolerably uniform strength, and be specially suited for the 
formation of patterns in the fabric. It will not be 
suitable for milling or felting, because the fibres of one 
thread cannot combine with those of another thread, 
and thus they cannot lose their individuality ; conse- 
quently, although the fabric is strong in the individual 
threads which compose it, these threads cannot inter- 
mingle so freely as in woollen cloth. It cannot possess 
the power to resist strain and friction in the same 
degree and in the same way, because the threads retain 
their individuality, and the fabric not being so compact 
as a woollen cloth, it will not have the same power of 
retaining warmth. On the other hand, any pattern 
woven upon it will not be lost or hid in the process of 
finishing, so that each class of thread has its own peculiar 
properties and advantages. 

24. Preparing and Spinning Cotton. — Cotton is 
prepared like woollen on the carding machines, but 
undergoes a process of equalisation like worsted ; some- 
times, for the production of high-class yarns, it is combed. 
The spinning is done sometimes on the mule and some- 
times on the throstle frame, so that the majority of 
cotton yarns may be said to partake of the character of 
both woollen and worsted so far as their structure is con- 
cerned. A combed yarn spun on a throstle frame would 
exactly answer in structure to the worsted thread. Of 
course, in yarns made from wool there are many which 
partake of the compound character. 

25. Preparing and Spinning Flax. — Flax also gives us 
two classes of yarn — namely, linen or line yarn,and tow yarn. 
The processes of preparing linen yarn are very similar to 


those of preparing worsted ; of course, the machines are 
different in their construction, because of the difference in 
the length and character of the fibre. Flax is " hackled " 
— beat or crushed — to make it flexible ; it is then 
" scutched," an operation equivalent to combing. Tn 
some cases the fibres are too long to work ; they are then 
broken by a "saw." After the scutching the short 
fibres are carded for " tow " yarn in the same manner as 
the "noil," or short fibres of wool after combing, are 
carded for woollen yarn. 

26. Preparing Silk Yarns. — Silk is very different 
from any of the other fibres. Raw silk is drawn from 
the cocoon of the silk- worm in one long continuous fila- 
ment ; several of these are put together, and produce 
what is known as " tram," or weft silk, and " organ- 
zine," or warp silk. The one is put together loosely, 
with little or no twist, and the other is twisted firmly 
together to make a solid, compact thread. Both have 
the same feature of being formed of long filaments, con- 
sequently they are suited for the production of patterns 
upon the fabric, and also possess great strength. 

In some cases the cocoons are damaged, and incapable 
of being wound or drawn out in one continuous filament. 
Such cocoons are taken and torn up into lengths. They 
are then combed, the fibres laid parallel, and spun in the 
same manner as cotton or worsted. This yarn, of course, 
does not possess the freedom from fibres upon its surface 
which " raw " silk does ; yet, the fibres being combed 
out, and being of considerable length, it is a very strong 
thread, and well suited for the production of patterns 
upon the fabric. 

"We have now a tolerably clear conception of the 
first principles which must guide us in our application 
of ornament to fabrics. First, we have examined into 
the theory of the structure of cloth, and the suitability of 
the various kinds of structure for useful and ornamental 
purposes. We have then had a brief examination of the 
structure of threads, and the fibres from which they are 


made, and the suitability of each for the different pur- 
poses to which it may be applied. Our next object must 
be to examine into the principle of ornamenting fabrics, 
either by the order of interweaving the threads together, 
the introduction of colour, or both. And throughout we 
must keep closely in view the purposes to which the 
fabrics are to be applied, the considerations of strength and 
general utility, and in no case must we impair the utility of 
the fabric by ornamentation, but rather combine the two 
to the utmost, and direct our attention always to the 
production of an article which shall not only be 
pleasing to the eye as a work of art, but also serve 
to the utmost all the objects for which it is designed. 



27. Relation of Ornament to Structure. — Our next 
duty is to consider the ornamentation of the fabric, 
and in doing so we must take care that we do 
nothing which will detract from its usefulness. We 
may, of course, ornament with colour to any extent 
without in any way adding to or detracting from the 
utility of the fabric so far as its wearing properties, 
strength, &c, are concerned. But the question of the 
use of colour we may deal with separately ; our present 
concern must be to ornament by the varying order of 
interweaving of the threads or constructing the fabric. 
In the first chapter we have shown that plain cloths 
may be ornamented to a certain extent by the alteration 
of the relative quantities of warp or weft, so as to cause 
the formation of cords or ribs ; these cords would at all 
times run parallel to each other, either longitudinally 

to ^b»*** 


through the piece or transversely. That is the simplest 
form of ornamentation ; and, if proper regard be paid to 
the proportions of warp and weft, although simple, it is 
very neat and effective. 

28. Twilling. — The next kind of ornament is what 
is commonly known as twills. These, in their simplest 
form, are merely ribs or cords running diagonally across 
the fabric. It would seem at first sight as if this form 
of decorating fabrics would not permit of much variation, 
but, in reality, it offers a wide field, and is prob- 
dSddSS a hly more used than any other. The first and 
SdSddS simplest sort of twill is represented by the 

■QDBDD P lan > -r lg- 1 U. 

rig. io. I n this it will be found that each weft 

thread passes over two and under one warp 
thread, and that the order of interweaving is consecu- 
tive, that is, each pick of weft passes under a different 
end of warp, following in the order 1, 2, 3. The 
result of this is that every third pick and every third 
end are repetitions, or, in other words, the whole 
pattern is complete upon three ends and three picks, 
and that the whole fabric consists of any number 
of repetitions of these three ends and picks. All these 
repetitions join to each other in such a manner that the 
line of twill or pattern is continuous. Although this is 
the simplest form of pattern-making next to plain cloth, 
yet, like plain cloth, it is capable of being ornamented by 
the alteration of the relative quantities and thickness of 
warp and weft. The twill may be made more or less 
bold, and the angle at which it runs across the fabric 
may be altered, and it may be made to present a fine or 
coarse surface. If the threads per inch of warp and 
weft be equal, the angle at which the twill will run 
across the piece will be forty -five degrees, because of its 
moving from end to end in consecutive order. In this 
particular pattern either warp or weft must preponderate 
on the surface of the fabric. As it is presented here, the 
weft preponderates in the proportion of two to one. If 


the pattern were w T orked in the reverse order — that is, the 
weft to pass under two threads and over one — the warp 
would preponderate on the surface in the same degree 
that weft does now. It is a generally accepted rule — 
and, as will be shown with other patterns, very properly, 
too — that whichever set of threads, warp or weft, pre- 
ponderates on the surface in the order of interweaving, 
the same threads must also preponderate in the actual 
number per inch, though not necessarily using threads of 
the same diameter. 

In this case, then, we say weft preponderates on the 
surface. Then we should have a greater number per 
inch of weft than warp ; and if we do so, the angle 
at which the twill runs will be less than forty-five 
degrees. We have here, even in a greater degree than in 
plain cloth, the power of producing a fine compact fabric, 
and at the same time ornamenting. But the question will 
naturally arise, Of what does the ornamentation consist 1 
because the mere alteration of the angle of the twill 
can scarcely of itself be called an increased ornamenta- 
tion. Certainly it cannot; but accompanying this 
altered angle will always be an alteration in the fine- 
ness of the surface, and this of itself is an improvement. 
At the same time, along with this fineness we have 
more compactness, and consequently increased useful- 
ness. As we increase the number of threads per inch 
we must decrease their diameters in the proper propor- 
tion, otherwise the proper balance will not be maintained 
between warp and weft, and in all fabrics this must 
be carefully attended to. Then if we have a greater 
number of threads per inch, and these threads are pro- 
portionately thinner, we must have increased fineness, 
and consequently a better appearance, a closer and more 
compact fabric, stronger in proportion to the weight of 
material it contains. 

We have in this one pattern one of the best illus- 
trations in its simplest form of the ornamentation of 
fabrics where colour is not employed; and it must be 


borne in mind that a very large proportion of textile 
fabrics made for articles of dress are of one colour 
only, and not a combination of colours, and are 
dependent upon structural ornamentation for the 
production of an article which will be pleasing to the 

We may now proceed further in the examination of 
twill patterns. 

If we refer again to Fig. 6 we shall find that precisely 
the same principle of arrangement, so far as the consecu- 
tive order of working is concerned, has been adopted as 
in the pattern of which we have just been speaking, but 
instead of either warp or weft preponderating on the 
surface, they are exactly equal. The generally accepted 
theory of the true structure of a fabric of such a pattern 
as this is, that warp and weft should be equal not only 
in quantity but in thickness. That is quite true, 
though we may produce a perfect piece of cloth without 
this being actually the case, but the proper proportion 
or balance must be maintained; we may increase the 
quantity of weft or warp, but we must reduce the 
diameters in a proper degree. Although the actual 
number of threads per inch is not the same in warp as 
in weft, the true proportion of one to another must be 
retained. If we do so, we shall alter the angle of the 
twill, we shall alter the fineness of the fabric, and the 
increased fineness will add a value to it, render it 
more pleasing to the eye, and at the same 
RnnSSIiSa time a more serviceable article. 
□Shi Proceeding from this form of simple 

ISSnaHSS twill, we may commence to make designs 
■SaaaSSS oi a larger and more ornamental character. 
Fig. 11. I n patterns of the class of which we have 
just been speaking, whether the repetition 
occurs every three, four, or any number of ends, we 
should simply have a series of diagonal bars or ribs, 
all of equal size, and running parallel to each other. We 
may add very much to the beauty of the pattern by 


varying the size of these lines or ribs, and in doing so 
would probably add very much to the firmness of the 

If we take, for example, the two patterns in -Figs. 1 1 
and 1 2, we have the same quantities of weft and warp on 
the surface, but one would present 

a series of parallel lines all equal ggBRyBBnSnnnSS" 
in size, and the other would present HHSSSdS5ddS!Sd85 
a bold and a faint line alternately. SBBnSaDDSBSnSSnr 
The one showing the variety of BSSSBBSBBSSSBBSB 
lines would be the finer structure, Fig# 12# 

because the warp and weft inter- 
change more frequently, are more firmly interwoven 
together, and so secure firmness of texture. There 
is, however, one thing which must not be over- 
looked. If we are desiring to produce a heavy, bulky 
fabric, the pattern Fig. 11 will better enable us to do it, 
by allowing a greater number of threads to be intro- 
duced into a given space. We have, however, still a 
means left open of producing variety of lines, and yet 
of securing the requisite weight, and also the requisite 
firmness and closeness of texture. We have simply to 
enlarge our design and employ a greater number of threads 
in the formation of the pattern, and we may vary the 
lines at will. 

29. Arrangement of Designs on Paper. — Before 
going further, it will perhaps be better to explain to the 
student who may be just commencing his studies of 
Textile Fabrics the meaning of the arrangement of 
patterns in Figs. 11 and 12. The series of vertical spaces 
represent the warp threads, the horizontal ones the 
weft, and the black points of intersection indicate that 
weft, and the open spaces that warp, is coming to the 
surface. Thus by the use of paper ruled in this 
manner we have a ready means of conveying to 
the eye the appearance the pattern will present in 
the fabric, and of judging of its effect by the order of 


30. Patterns having a Twilled Basis. — Having 
now determined the mode of ornamenting by the use of 

simple twills, and their 

oaoBBBOOOBBBoaaBBBoanBBB effect udoii the structure 

DnBBBnDDBBBnBnnaBBBnnnBB em ^ u u l JUIi LI1 « &lluuul '' 

DBBBnzinBBBarjBBZinnBBBnnDB of the fabric as affecting 

BBBnanBBBGaaBBBnnnBBBnnD , ll ' aiu^im^ 

BBnaaBBBannBaBBBDncBBBaa not onlv the annearance 

BnnDBBBnDDBBDnBBBCDDBBBD •> ctppudi diiu, 

aaoBBBOooBBBoaoBBBoaoBBB of fineness but its useful- 
DDBBBanaBBBnBnnnBBBanDBB lllicncfe;5 ' ULlt lt& UM 1U1 

DBBBaDDBBBDaBBDnDBBBaaDB ness we mav nroceed 

BBBnaDBBBnnaBBBannBBBnaa ; 7 , ^ F 1U ^ U 

BBnaDBBBnaDBaBBBDaaBBBaa further, and see what 


•p. 13> effects we can produce by 

varying the order and di- 
rection of the twills. Here we have an immense field. 
We may take any simple twill and by altering its direc- 
tion at intervals, 

reo-ular or irreffu- □■■□■■□□■ooBBaBBaaBOBOBBaaBOOB 
reguiaL ox niegu oaBBOBBaaBaoBBOBBaoBaBBaoBOOBB 
lar we mav nro BooBBOBBOOBoaBBOBBDOBBaoBOOBBa 

Idl, we Illdy piU DBanBBDBBnDBnnBBDBBnBnnBaQBBDB 

duce patterns of □□■□OBBOBBoaBoaBBOBBoaBaaBBOBB 

uuce pdttuiiib ui ■DaBanBBnBBnnBnaBBnBDBnnBBDBBa 

the most elaborate ■■□□■odbbobbooboobbobodbbobboc: 

uie mobb uiduuidtti aBBoaBaaBBOBBaoBOOBBoaBBOBBooB 

character and add BDBBnnBnaBBnBBnnBnnBnBBDBBDnBn 

ciiciicicbt;i, dim duu BBaBBnaBanBBDBBnnBnnBBnBBDDBna 

beautv to thefabric □□BnnBBDBBnnBnDBBDBBDnBnDBBnBB 

utility tu Liiuiduno □BDDBBDBBnaBanBBnBBnBDDBnnBBDB 

without in anv BnDBBDBBnaBnnBBaBBnnBBnaBnnBBD 

r l P crree affectino- its 088088008008808800808088008008 

structure or use- BOBBOOBOOBBaBBaaBOOBaBBOBBaoBn 


fulness Generallv BBaoBoaBBOBBaoBoaBBDBoaBBOBBoa 
iunie&&. vT-eiieictiij', BnaB nn HBnBBnnBn n BBnBnHn nHBOBBn 


ld^lli^ Will ettobUllie □□ BBnBBnnBDDBBnBBnnBnBBnnHnnHB 

one of three forms* OBBOBBaoBooBBOBBaoBaBOBBoaBooB 


first strines- second laBBOOBaoBBOBBaoBOOBOBBOBBaoBa 

iii6>u,&Liipe& ; &euuiiu 5 BBDnBnaBBnBBDDBDnBBnnBBDBBnDB 

check effects : and. BBOOBOOBBOBBoaBOOBBOBaaBBOBBaa 

cnuoi^ eiiaws , dim, BDnBDDBBaBBDDBDDBBDBDBaDBBaBBa 

third, hgures par- Fig. u. 

taking more or less 

of a diagonal character. The patterns in Figs. 13,14, and 
15, are examples of the three orders or classes, each based 
upon a different twill. They may, of course, all 
have been based upon the same twill ; but by using a 
different one for each we can more readily demonstrate 
the use of variety of twills in producing patterns. 

In ornamenting fabrics by the use of twills in this 

Chap. III. J 



manner, we have a very great advantage over the use 
of twills running continually in one direction. We can 

obtain all the variety of lines 
which the continuous, twill 
would give. We can also ob- 
tain variety of form to any 
extent we please, and we re- 
tain the same texture and the 

r« ^■□□■■□□■■DHnnMn 






same degree of usefulness. 

Extensive and valuable 
as this form of ornamentation 
is, it is really only the first 
introduction to our work. 
Fig. 15, Certainly, a very large pro- 

portion of the fabrics made 
are decorated from a basis of simple twills only, probably 
in many cases because of structural advantages ; yet the 
use of twills in other forms may readily be resorted to, 
and with all the advantages of the simple twill, and 
greater scope for producing variety of pattern. 

Another form in which twills may be, and, indeed 
are, very largely used, is shown in Fig. 16, where a very 
bold diagonal line is run, and a smaller twill running 



bbggbbggbbbbdb: I 


Fig. 16 







Fig. 17 

between and in the opposite direction, and again in 
Fig. 17, where the same diagonal line is employed, and a 
small spot introduced between. In either of these orders 
of working we have an immense field for the production 


of variety of pattern. When dealing with the system of 
combination shown in Fig. 17, it requires great care and 
judgment to prevent the fabric from becoming too loose 
in its structure. If we attempt to make the figure too 
large, or the diagonal line too bold, we are running great 
danger of interweaving the warp and weft at such long 
intervals that the fabric will lose its value as an article 
of utility. 

Again, we may produce patterns in twill, forms 
which are nothing more or less than a series of small 
figures arranged in diagonal lines, 
■DDnSSSnnSnc 'T without producing actually one con- 
nnSSSanSDDSSBn tinuous unbroken line, as in Fig. 18, 
■■■SSSnc iBSnoB and also in many cases — and these 
■5qSddBBSd5dB£ are a very large class indeed — where 
5Bn[ 'iBBaaDBSBa we have a diagonal line running upon 
DDBBSannBySngg a ground-work of plain cloth. In 
SBSBaBBSBaaSaa tne case °^ a pattern upon a ground 
Fig. 18. of plain cloth, we produce a fabric 

of very firm texture, but not one 
into which we can introduce a very large quantity of 
material. In fact, whenever we combine plain with 
any order of working, we reduce our power of making 
either heavy or bulky fabrics, so that whenever our 
object is to produce heavy goods we must bear this care- 
fully in mind. 

31. Twills Arranged in Satin Order. — We must 
now turn our attention to another class of twill, and 
one which is of much importance, not only from a 
decorative point of view, but also from considerations 
of utility. In the first chapter (Sect. 8) reference was 
made to satins as being arrangements suitable for the 
production of fabrics requiring strength in one direction 
only ; but satins are also valuable for the production of 
fancy patterns ; or, rather, perhaps we should say for 
the present, the principle upon which satins are 
arranged is valuable when applied to other patterns, as 


Jn that portion of the first chapter to which we have 
just referred, it is pointed out that the peculiar feature of 
satins is, that no two succeeding picks of weft inter- 
weave with adjoining ends, but that the points of inter- 
weaving are distributed regularly, and in such manner 
that no two can come together. This is dependent upon 
the principle of arrangement, or perhaps it would be 
as w r ell to say rearrangement, of the threads, or the 
points of interweaving. On examining any 
satin it will be found that those points of ncroa 
interweaving are such distances apart as will B "3" 
be represented by such a number of threads IBdlS 
as is not a measure of the total employed in "HSSh 
the pattern. Thus, in what is termed a five- SSS5H 
thread satin, the points of interweaving are B5HSS 
two threads apart ; in an eight- thread satin Fig. 19. 
they are three threads apart, and so on. This 
may be taken as representing the rearrangement of 
the threads of a regular twill. Suppose we take 
Fig. 1 9 as representative of a simple twill upon five ends, 
and we number the ends 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; we then take 
these five ends and rearrange them in such manner that 

the points of interweaving are always at in- 
□□□□□ tervals of two from each other, as shown in 
BBSSS Fig. 20. By following the numbers in Fig. 20, 
I ]"■" ft will b e seen that the threads are simply re- 
dSdSS arranged. 

■dSc H> l ias already been pointed out that in 

■■"■[ anv pattern where either warp or weft pre- 
Fig. 20. ponderates on the surface of the fabric in 

the order of interweaving, it must also pre- 
ponderate in the actual quantity of yarn employed, 
and that this applies more especially to satins. In 
the case before us, where we have a twill and satin 
side by side in Figs. 19 and 20, and we show that the 
satin is simply the rearrangement of the twill, it would 
appear that the rule should apply equally to both \ but 
it cannot quite do so, because of one interweaving warp 


with weft in consecutive order, and the other at in- 
tervals. Now, if that be the case in this kind of simple 
twills, it is even more so in that of other twills. Let us 
examine the two patterns Figs. 21 and 22. 

Here we have the separate warp threads numbered 

inexactly the same manner as Figs. 19 and 20, the only 

difference being that a greater number 

555555555BBS °* thr f ds f e 0CCU P ied > and therefore 
Dnnnnnnnnnnn order of rearrangement is different, 

DDngDDBBgggii though it is based upon precisely the 

DDDDDBBBBBBD ° . . l . i , , -i • 

ngnai !■■□□ same principle — namely, that the m- 

□□□■■■■■■□QD i • ,-i i f • . 

■ iMaana terval in the order of interweaving is 
BDDnnna equal to the first number which is not 
innnDDDBB a measure of the total. 

IBBDnnDDDBBB m , r , „ . . ... ,- 

BBDnnnDDi To make a perfect fabric with the 

F . pattern in Fig. 21, warp and weft should 

be equal in every respect. There is the 
same quantity of each on the surface, the order of in- 
terweaving is consecutive, and the angle of the twill 
would be one of forty-five degrees, but in the rearrange- 
ment, as in Fig. 22, the conditions are altered. True, 
there is still the same quantity of warp and weft on 
the surface; the angle of the twill is also one of forty- 
five degrees, but the order of interweaving is completely 
changed. In the pattern, when worked as a regular twill, 
each end as it comes to the surface is 
supported for five-sixths "& its length SbSSSSbSBSS 
by the end adjoining it on each side, ggg ; jbbgbgb 
consequently the cloth will look fine and Rgf SRHHHRHH 

^ .p V i i i QBaBBQBGBGGB 

compact it the threads are uist set so close HH95RS5R5R5R 


as to touch each other, or it they occupy HSH5R5RE5R5R 


a space each equal to their diameters. jBBnBDBnDBn 

The same remark will apply exactly 5R5R5RR5R5£ 


to the wett, but in the pattern as Fio . 22 

shown in Fig. 22 alternate ends are 
brought to the surface, as in the formation of plain cloth, 
but they remain on the surface for a longer period than 
in plain cloth. If we weave this pattern with the warp 


set the same distances apart as for the regular twill, each 
warp thread will stand separate and distinct, and the 
cloth would not be nearly so firm as in the 


common twill. We must compare patterns of ^ggj 
this class with plain cloths constructed so as SBiiSnS 
to form a rib across the piece ; we must 'have ISddBbb 
the warp threads fine, and so closely set ■□□□■■■ 
that all those on the surface will be in Fig. 23. 
actual contact with each other, or so near 
as not to show any division. The weft is con- 
tained between the warp, it will therefore be 
□5B5S55 ^ a ^ straight, and the warp will bend round 
■"■ • it. Another example is shown in Figs. 23 

mm'ma and 24 ; and > footer, in Figs. 25 and 26. 
■■didbo J n both the instances of regular twill 

Fig. 24. patterns, Figs. 23 and 25, the quantities of 
warp and weft are nearly equal, and the order 
of interweaving would produce a very firm fabric. In 
the rearranged patterns, in Figs. 24 and 
26, each pick is as nearly as possible □□□□a"""!"" 
a plain pick — that is, under and over fflSJ! jEnna 
alternate threads — and for at least one □■■[ jBgaaQD 
half the pattern two picks together ISSdHdHSB 

are under and over the same threads. iBnnnnnSS! 
Again, they differ from the pattern in ■dddddbbbbb 
Fig. 22 in the angle at which the twill rig. 25. 

runs across the fabric. In Fig. 22 two 

threads come to the surface together at 
□BDBnBDBDBB regular intervals, in Figs. 24 and 26 

DBDBnBDBBnB , , ° -, , . i • f , i xl 

dbi ■ BBDBDfl they do not, taking m both cases the 

□BBDBDBnBDB. black dots as indicating weft. In Figs. 

]bbd 24 and 26 the number of ends employed 

BDBDBnBBDBn . , , , l-» • on 

BDBDBBnBnBn is an odd number, while m Fig. 22 

BDBBnBDBDBD ... a i . l i n j.i ^ 

BBDBnBDBDBa it is even. Although all the three 

Fig. 26. patterns in Figs. 22, 24, and 26 are 

arranged upon the same basis — they are 

all simple rearrangements of a regular twill — they will 

produce different effects in the fabric, first, as to the angle, 



[Chap. III. 








Fig. 27. 

and second, as to the regularity of the twill. However, 
the\ all possess one feature in common, namely, that they 
are akin to the corded or ribbed class of plain cloth, but 
the rib will not be in the direct line of the weft, and at 
right angles to the warp, but will be more or less of the 
nature of a diagonal line. They all require that the warp 

shall be closely set, and the angle 
of the twill varies in each case as 
the relative quantity of warp and 
weft varies. 

We have in this principle of re- 
arrangement in satin order a very 
easy and simple method of pro- 
ducing patterns for ornamentation, 
and if proper relations be main- 
tained between warp and weft ac- 
cording to the order of interweav- 
ing, our fabrics will be of a most 
useful character. In fact, in many cases the rearranged 
pattern will give a more useful fabric than the simple 
twill, just in the same manner as 
the corded plain cloth is a more 
useful and strong er cloth than 
the plain cloth of the pure type. 
The rearrangement of twills 
in satin order will, in a great many 
cases, produce patterns of a very 
ornamental character, and present- 
ing an appearance greatly different 
from that of the original twill 
from which it comes. This is 
well illustrated in Figs. 27 and 28. 

In the former we have a twill of ordinary type, but in 
the latter we have one of a very different character. Not 
only is it a distinctly ornamental twill, but the angle at 
which it runs is altogether different; the order of 
interweaving is different so far as the successive 
order of each end is concerned, though the ends 











na ■ ■■ ifiGDDii 


Fig. 28. 


taken individually are precisely the same. In fact, if we 
examine the ends and their numbering, we shall see that 
Fig. 28 is Fig. 27 rearranged. It would be a very 
easy matter to give a very large number of illustra- 
tions, but the limited space will not permit it, and the 
number of patterns cajmble of being produced has 
already been fully illustrated in my " Album of Textile 

It was pointed out on page 38 that in many cases the 
rearrangement of a twill in satin order very frequently 
altered the angle of the twill, and by the alteration of 
angle, as well as the order of interweaving, would neces- 
sitate the alteration of the relative quantities of warp 
and weft. This is true in the great majority of cases ; if 
the rearrangement takes place in the warp threads, the 
angle of the twill generally runs in the direction of the 
weft, and so approaches a ribbed fabric, as shown in Figs. 
24 and 26, but in some cases the angle of the twill 
will remain the same as in the original, though these 
cases are not very numerous. In some few the angle 
will be more in the direction of the warp. The altera- 
tion of the angle is mostly dependent upon the order of 
rearrangement, but in a few instances it is affected by 
the order of interweaving of each individual thread. In 
any case it is a master of the greatest importance that 
the relation of warp to weft should be carefully adjusted 
to the pattern, so as to secure a proper balance of struc- 
ture, and so make the fabric serve all useful purposes to 
the utmost. 

There is one point here which may be observed : if 
the fabric is to be fine in the warp, or to be able to bear 
great strain in the direction of the warp, it is generally 
most readily obtained by rearrangement of the warp 
threads, as already shown ; but if it must be fine in the 
weft, or be able to bear lateral strain, then it may be 
readily obtained by the rearrangement of the picks or 
weft threads. The ornamentation of patterns of this 
.character need not be dependent only upon the particular 


class of pattern shown in Fig. 28, but as in ordinary 
twills it may consist of a variety of lines, or, in other 
words, by variation in the thickness or width of the 

From what has been said the formation, and more 
especially the rearrangement, of twills is intended to 
serve the joint purpose of ornamentation and increased 
usefulness ; but rearrangement of twills may be made for 
the sole purpose of ornamentation, and we have in this 
mode of working an immense field. It may be said that 
by the rearrangement of twills we have a means of pro- 
ducing a large variety of fancy patterns by a purely 
mechanical process, and that for their application to the 
fabric only judgment in selecting is required so as to 
apply that class of pattern which is most suitable for the 
class of fabric to be produced. 

32. The Production of Pattern by Rearrangement 
in Different Orders. — The system of rearrangement of 
which we have been speaking is one of the most 
perfect, but, as has been shown, it will produce 
generally but one class of pattern. We must now 
look for systems which will give us greater variety. 
We might look to what is commonly known as per- 
mutation to supply us with this, but we must be 
careful not to be led away by false ideas of the number 
of patterns we can produce, or the modes of producing 

According to the system of permutation, two objects 
can be placed in two positions in relation to each other, 
three objects can be placed in six positions, four objects 
in twenty-four positions, and so on. At first sight it- 
would appear that we may produce so many patterns 
upon any number of ends as permutation will give us 
positions, and that simply by the rearrangement of those 
positions. Further, we might say that as each end of 
warp must interweave with a given number of picks of 
weft, the number of patterns capable of being produced 
upon a given number of ends and picks would be repre- 


sented by the permutation of ends and picks together ; 
thus, if we take four ends and four picks, as represented 
here, □□□□ there are sixteen points of intersection of 
warp with weft. Now, the permutation of six- 

teen aaa & gives us a number represented by fourteen 
places of figures,or 20,867,685,888,000, so that it would 
appear that that would be the number of patterns we 
can produce. We must see what is the real state of the 
case. Patterns must have some definite order in their 
arrangement, and they must also be so arranged as to be 
continuous. Any pattern must be so that it will join to 
itself on all sides, and be perfectly continuous if extended 
or repeated in any direction. Let us take, for example, . 
a plain cloth. DB Here we have a complete plan of 
a plain cloth. " D Two ends and two picks are used ; 
there are four points of intersection. Those two ends 
and picks would be repeated any number of times so 
as to produce the width and length of fabric required. 
Suppose we exchange the places of the two ends, 
thus, Bn and repeat this rearrangement any num- 
ber of D " times, we should not produce a new pattern ; 
when extended they would both be exactly the same 
thing. Again, in exchanging the ends we have also 
exchanged the picks, so that it is quite incapable of 
further alteration in this respect, and all further efforts 
to produce patterns in this direction will be in vain. 
We will go one step further, and alter the order of 
interweaving, thus, om Here we make three of the 
four spaces black, or ■■ make weft come to the sur- 
face at three of the four points. If we were to ex- 
change the places of either ends or picks the result 
would be the same as in the previous case — that is, the 
pattern being repeated, the threads would be made to 
bear the same relation to each other as they did originally, 
so that we can go no farther in that direction. There 
is another point also which reduces this proposition 
to an absurdity. It will be seen that one pick of 
weft passes over both the ends employed, and also 


that one end passes under both picks ; therefore, no 
interweaving can take place, and cloth will not be 

It must always be borne in mind that whatever 
number of ends or picks are employed in the formation of 
a pattern, we are confined to that number, and the whole 
fabric is a series of repetitions. That being the case, 
plain cloth is incapable of any variation in the order of 
interweaving, although, as previously shown, it may be 
made the basis of a system of ornamentation. If we 
take three ends and three picks we have apparently some 
room left for ornamentation, but in reality we are again 
limited to two positions, thus, We may 

place our three ends in any nan or nan order we 
please, but they will always produce 

exactly the same thing — a regular twill running from left 
to right or from right to left ; and any alteration in the 
order of the ends will produce an exactly corresponding 
alteration inothe picks. In fact, it is as if we take three 
straight lines ; we can produce but one figure from them 
— namely, a triangle. We may obtain an apparent 
alteration in the twill by bringing weft over two warp 
threads instead of one, thus, but it is the same 

pattern. We are merely □■■ substituting weft 
for warp on the surface, and the back of one 

fabric will be exactly like the face of the other. If we 
take four ends we have a little more scope for the produc- 
tion of patterns, but it is still very limited. We may run 
our twill in one direction or the other, or we may break the 
pattern into two portions, and reverse the order 

of position of one of the pairs, thus, dddb and so 
produce a quite distinct effect, but so far ■ddd as re- 
arrangement goes, that is all we can do, every 
other rearrangement producing precisely the same result. 
We have, however, one advantage, which increases as 
the number of ends employed increases — that is, we can 
vary the order of interweaving more — though with four 
ends we are limited to two — the one given above and 


that in which we allow weft to pass over and under two 
warp threads, thus, ■□□■ each being equally capable, 
of the same varia- nSS" tion. 

If we were to pro- ■ BDD ceed in detail through each 
number of ends in succession, we should find at each step 
that we have not only the advantage which has just 
been pointed out — the power of varying the order of 
interweaving — but greater variety of rearrangements. 
We have not only the satin arrangement already 
spoken of, but a great number of other orders. 
For example, we might transpose the ends in twos, 
threes, fours, or any number — thus, 2, 1, 4, 3, 6, 5, 
or 3, 2, 1, 6, 5, 4, &c. Each of these transposed orders 
may be further rearranged. After we have trans- 
posed, say, in twos, take the resulting pattern and 
rearrange it in satin order, the pattern resulting from 
that in some other order, and so on, until we eventually 
return to the original starting point. There is but the 
one thing to bear in mind — that all our rearrangements 
must be regular ; there can be no pattern without regu- 
larity and order. If we do not carefully attend to that, 
we shall have simply a jumble of threads together and 
no pattern. 

33. Patterns Produced by Combination of Twills.— 
This method of producing patterns by rearrangement is 
but the first step in the production of new designs 
for fabrics in a systematic manner. Great as is the 
number of designs which may be obtained by this mode 
of working, it is small compared with what may be 
obtained by other and equally systematic methods. We 
may turn our attention next to what is known as the 
doctrine of combinations, and from that we shall be able 
to obtain an infinite variety. We will first examine into 
the system of combinations, and then see how far we 
can apply it to the work in hand. Although, as has been 
shown, permutation gives nominally great power of pro- 
ducing patterns, yet, in reality, when applied in regular 
order, as is necessary for designs, it is limited. It might 


almost be said that combinations give an unlimited 
power. The combination of two square pieces, each 
divided diagonally in two colours, is said to be capable 
of being made in sixty-four different ways. According 
to Prestet's calculation, the combinations possible of the 
twenty-four letters of the alphabet taken by twos, then 
by threes, and so on, amount to a number represented by 
thirty-three places of figures, or thirteen billions of 
billions, or 139 quintillions, or so many different words 
may be produced. There is this difference between the 
combination of such things as the letters of the alphabet 
and the ends of a pattern — whereas the letters of the 
alphabet are all different, the order of working of the 
ends of a pattern should be similar. Still, although the 
working of the ends should be similar, the order of inter- 
weaving of the picks need not necessarily be similar; 
and again, any two letters will admit of but one com- 
bination, but two patterns will admit of a number 
of combinations, and at each one produce a new 

Combinations are generally taken as denoting the 
placing together of objects, quantities, &c, and their 
alteration or variation in all possible ways. Thus, one 
object will admit of no combination; two objects will 
admit of one combination only, provided they are simple 
objects, but if they are not simple ones — if they present 
different appearances on their different sides, as in the 
case of the coloured squares — then they will permit of a 
great number of combinations \ and further, as we 
increase either the variety or the number of objects, we 
increase at the same time the number of fresh combinations 
possible. We will proceed first with the combination of 
simple objects in twos. Two objects will admit of one 
combination only — viz., ab ; three objects will admit 
of three combinations — ab, ac, and bc ; four objects will 
admit of six combinations — ab, ac, ad, bc, bd, cd ; five 
objects will admit of ten combinations ; and so on. The 
combination of any number of objects will proceed ac- 


cording to the triangular numbers 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, &c, 

or a general formula will be — j— « — = combinations ; 

that is, let N represent the number of objects — suppose 

6 — then — l x 2 = 15 ; or fifteen will be the number of 

combinations which may be produced from six objects. 

Now let us see how this will apply to patterns, and 
how far we may extend it by placing the patterns in a 















Fig. 29. Fig. 30. Fig. 31. Fig. 32. Fig. 33. 


different position in relation to each other. In Fig. 29 
we have a combination of two seven-end twills, pick and 
pick alternately \ that is, the first, third, fifth, <fec, picks 
would form one complete seven-end twill of themselves, 
and the second, fourth, sixth, &c, picks would form one 
pattern. The two patterns are 

placed together alternately, one SB5S35B bddbddb 
pick of one and one pick of the gggSggg I "55 
other, and so form a new pattern. □£"□■■□ dbddb! 
Now, as we have just pointed out, ggnBBHD ■ "m\ 
two simple objects permit of one ggSSHSS ddbbc 
combination only; but two patterns "5SB5S5 "!"[ Idbd 
can scarcely be called simple objects, gyggggg jg§ 

In the first place, each pattern oc- Fig 34 Fig# 35t 

cupies seven ends, consequently 

they can be placed in relation to each other in at 
least seven different positions, as shown in patterns 29 
to 35. 

Then, after we have found by the formula given 



[Chap. III. 

how many combinations we can produce from a given 
number of patterns, we may multiply that by the 

number of ends in the pattern, 
because we can combine them in as 
many positions as there are ends 

Upon seven ends suppose we 
make, say, sixteen simple twills — 
not a very difficult thing to do. 

We can combine these sixteen twills in „ * ° = 120 times 


in one position in relation to each other, and as there 

are seven ends, we may produce 120 x 7 = 840 patterns 


p <■■■ 


Fig. 36. 



lai ■ i 

Fig. 37. 




































































Fig. 38. 

Fig. 39. 

Fig. 40. 

Fig. 41. 

Fig. 42. 

by combinations. But we have not done even yet, for 
each of these simple twills is capable of rearrangement, 
and they can then be combined 
in their rearranged form. Thus, 
Figs. 36 and 37 are rearrangements 

mil i : ■ 

■■■ : 


m satin order of the two patterns of Sy"°"nS 
which Fig. 29 is composed, and the gggg" c 
patterns 38 to 44 are combinations 
of those rearrangements. The ap- 
pearance presented by these patterns 
is very different from that of those 
composed of straight twills, so that 
we have here again 840 more patterns possible 
is only one rearrangement. Many others may be made ; 
each again may be dealt with as before, and so give us 


Fig. 43. 



Fig. 4k 

But this 


an unlimited field for the production of new designs. 
Perhaps, in producing this great number of patterns, 
we should find in many cases that we have repetition, 
though the repetition would not take exactly the same 
form, but probably the pattern would appear in reverse 
order ; still, it would be none the less the same pattern, 
and again, many of the patterns would come so nearly 
alike that they would amount practically to the same 
thing in the fabric. However, the principle is valuable 
as enabling us to produce a large number and variety of 
designs with the least possible amount of labour, and 
giving us a power of producing patterns of even a more 
elaborate character than the combinations previously 
alluded to produce. 

So far we have been speaking of combining our twills 
in regular order in twos only, but we may vary the 
order as much as we like, provided only it is on a 
systematic basis ; and we may combine in threes, fours, 
or any number we please. We will see how far the 
combinations in threes or any number will enable us to 
go. If we combine in threes, three objects will admit of 
but one order, four objects will admit of four orders, 
abcj abd, acd, and bcd, and five objects will admit of 
ten combinations. Thus for combinations in threes a 

N N- 1 N — 2 
general formula will be y x — ^ — X - ~g— , and so on ; 

and the same formula may be extended to the combination 
of any number of objects, and by any number at one time ; 
and the formula for determining the number of combi- 
nations will be as above, continued to M, the number of 
factors. In these series, as in the series of twos, each 
pattern is capable of being placed in relation to each of 
the others in as many positions as there are ends used. 
So that we have surely a sufficiently wide field for the 
production of designs of this class without having in any 
way to draw upon imagination, but we have to exercise 
a proper discretion in applying them to the fabric. 




34. The Effects of Combination of different Twills 
in Stripe form. — We may now proceed to deal with the 
production of designs from the combination of twills or 
other patterns, and in doing so we must not only take 
into account the pleasing effects we may obtain from 
such combinations, but also the relations of the structure 
of fabric of one pattern to the structure of another 
pattern ; and thirdly, the economic use of patterns in 
the process of weaving. We have already pointed out 
in reference to Figs. 13, 14, and 15 that patterns 
may be readily produced from simple bases, by com- 
bining them so as to form stripes, checks, and figures. 
In all those cases the pattern is produced by combining 
the twill with itself; that is, it is allowed to run for a 
given number of ends or picks in one direction, and 
then for a given number in another direction, so forming 
the pattern by the twill lines running in various direc- 
tions. This is probably the easiest mode of producing 
patterns of a large size, and also of an elaborate character, 
though it must of course be borne in mind that there will 
always be a certain stiffness about them. One chief value 
of patterns arranged upon this basis is their economical 
production in the loom. The stripes or checks may be 
varied to any extent ; the pattern may be as large or 
elaborate as we please \ but if proper care is taken in their 
arrangement there are only a limited number of different 
orders of working ; that is to say, the whole pattern con- 
sists of a twill, which is represented by a limited number 
of ends. These ends are simply repeated over and over 
again, perhaps not exactly in the same order, but the 


order is varied according to the working of the pattern. 
Still a few ends are representative of the whole, and 
consequently a few " healds " will suffice in the loom 
for weaving the pattern. It only requires that proper 
care be taken to arrange the order of succession of the 
ends, and the order in which they are drawn through 
the healds, to ensure the proper pattern being produced 
in the most economical manner. 

In the principle of rearrangement with which we 
dealt in Chap. III. we have a power of producing pat- 
terns of much greater variety than we can obtain by 
the mere combination of a simple twill with itself, 
at the same time that we preserve the economical mode 
of working. But in its application very great care be- 
comes necessary to ensure the fabric being perfect ; and 
not only for that reason, but also because although we 
may combine patterns which have the same common 
base, and so produce a pattern which can be worked 
with a small number of healds, yet we may so combine 
the two that they cannot be worked with a small number. 
And again, we must bear in mind the similarity of the 
two patterns, or their bases, must not be imaginary but 

We will examine first into the question of the com- 
bination of patterns coming from the same base, but 
producing different effects in the fabric, and requiring a 
rearrangement of the proportions of warp and weft. 
If we refer to Figs. 21 and 22, we shall find an 
illustration of the fact that the rearrangement of the 
threads of a pattern will require an alteration of the 
relative quantities of warp and weft. Now, these two 
patterns come from the same base. Every separate end 
in one pattern is raised and depressed exactly in the 
same order as the ends in the other pattern, only they 
do not bear precisely the same relation to each other 
in their order of succession, as is indicated by their 
numbers. But one can be woven upon the same 
healds as the other ; that is, the heald which carries 


thread No. 1 in one pattern might also carry thread 
No. 1 in the other, and so with thread No. 2. This is 
usually the first point looked to in the arrangement of 
patterns, because if we can produce an elaborate design 
upon a small number of healds, we can do our work in 
the most economical manner; and so far as the two 
patterns to which we have referred are concerned, this 
can be done readily, but we must look carefully to the 
effect in the cloth. We have already seen that in the 
two patterns to which we are now alluding the one will 
require considerably more warp threads per inch than 
the other, or if we were to weave them both from the 
same warp, with the same size of yarn and the same 
number per inch, there would be a great difference in 
the two cloths. Then it must be very evident that if 
we combine these two patterns in the same cloth in stripe 
form, there will be a difficulty in the formation of the 
fabric in consequence of one portion interweaving more 
loosely than the other. The effect will be that the warp 
forming one portion will gradually become slack, and an 
effect commonly termed " cockling " will be produced. If 
we make very small patterns, or patterns occupying only 
a very small number of ends, this would not perhaps 
be so apparent ; but if the pattern be large, then it 
would become a serious objection, and in fact it would 
be almost, if not quite, impossible to produce a per- 
fect piece of cloth, unless the two patterns were made 
from different warps, and came from different warp 
beams in the loom. 

35. Combination of Different Twills in Check 
Form. — If we take the same two patterns, and combine 
them in a different order, say so as to form a kind of 
chequered pattern, as in Fig. 45, Ave shall obviate the 
difficulty to some extent. Here it will be seen that each 
set of threads works first to one pattern and then the 
other alternately. That being the case, one will 
neutralise the other, and so prevent the " cockling " 
which will occur in the case of a stripe pure and 


simple. We have in this case obviated one difficulty, but 
care must be taken that in doing so we don't fall into 
another. If we are working in this stripe form, by a 
simple combination of the two patterns Figs. 21 and 22 
side by side regularly, there would be no difficulty about 
weaving the pattern with the smallest number of healds 
possible — namely, twelve — because one portion is simply 
the other rearranged, so that it is really a continual 
repetition of the same twill, but not with the ends 
always in the same con- 

seentive orrlpr The samp ■□BDBHnHnannHHBHBBnnnnnn 
b^cuuve oiuei. bame BnBnnBDBDBBnnBBBBBBnnnnn 

lliav 1)P said also of thp BaBBDBDBDDBnnnHBBBBBDnDn 

may uc saia aiso oi rue iDDiaiDiiDiaDDrjBiBii"'nn 

(lesion Fio- 45 but as the BBDBDBDnBaBannnDBBHBBBDn 

uebign jig. *o, dul ab tne nBDBaBBQBDBnnnDnnBBBBBBn 
two orders of working ex- □■□BaDBDBnBDDnnnnnBBBBBB 
two oiutiboi woiKing ex niDBinnninDDiDDnnnaiiiBi 

ehana-e nWes at intervals □BnDBDBnBBDDBBDnnnDDBBBB 

cnange piaceb at nrcci \ ais, DBBaBnanDBnGBBannnnnDBBB 

unless t,ho<jp PYphanop<? nvp DnBDBnBBDBDnBBBBDnnnDDBB 

umebb Pilose excnanges ai e BnBDBnnBnBnnBBBBBnanannB 
nronerlv avrnnaWI the DDDaDDBBBBBBDBnBnnBnBGBn 
piopeny anangea, tne DDDDDBBBBBBnnBaBnBBnBDBn 

two sets of warn threads nnDDBBBBBBDDBBDBnBnnBDBn 

lwo beis 0I wai P wiieaas nanBBBBBBnnnBDnBDBDBBnBn 
will not be exact far- DnBBBBBBnnnDBDBBnBnBnnBn 
win not De exact iac- DBBBBBBanDnnBnBnDBnBDBBn 

similes of eaeh other * BBBBBBDDnDanBDBDBBaBnBDn 
bimiieb oi eaon ouiei , BBBBBDnnnnnBBnBnBDDBnauB 

and unless thev a,re so BBBBnnDDDnBBnnBDBnBBDBDB 

rtllU Ulliebb Ult,y aie bO, BBBDnDDnnBBBDBBnBDBnDBnB 
thev eonlrl not nossihlv ■BDDDDnnBBBBDBnnBDBDBBGB 

be woven with the same Fig. 45. 


It is not intended here to enter closely into the 
question of " drafting," as that subject is fully treated in 
my " Treatise on Weaving and Designing Textile 
Fabrics ; " but it is necessary to refer to it so as to 
enable the student to more fully understand the 
application of design to the . fabric from a practical 
point of view. For the purpose of explaining this more 
clearly we will refer to Fig. 46. This is, in all appear- 
ance, exactly the same pattern as Fig. 45. It is, in fact, 
the same combination, and made in apparently the same 
manner ; but if the threads be carefully examined all 
through the pattern it will be seen that there are no 
two exactly alike, so that although we are making the 
same pattern, exactly the same combination, we have 


made it more difficult and more costly to produce, by- 
requiring a greater number of healcls to weave it with. 

36. The Method of Joining Patterns in Combina- 
tion. — In arranging patterns of this kind, the manner in 
which the two patterns join together requires much care. 
The point of junction should be such as to show no 
imperfection ; that is, the weft or warp should not pass 

under or over a greater 

DBnanBanBaBDnnnncDBBBBBB or less number of threads 

nonHanBaBnaBDnnnBHSBSBan at that point than they 

DBnnBDBnBBDBnnnBBBHBBnna i i 1 th 

DBBDBnBnnBnBnnBBBBBBnnDa do anywhere else, lliere 

naBGBnBBnBnBnBBBBBBnnnnn • ± 1 

■aBnBnnBGBDBBBBBBBnnnnnn are instances where some 

BSBBgBBBSBSSBBBBSSBSBSSB little imperfections must 

BBgBBBRBSBBRBBggRRRSgBB! occur at the junction, but 

SSSSHSSSKBSSRgRSHSSSF.: all care must be exercised 

□nncnBBBBBBnnBBnBGBnGBra - , i n , 

nnaaBBBBBBnnnBnDBnBDBBrlB to reduce them to a 
nnaBBBBBBnnndBDBBaBDBnnB • • i 

naBBBBBBannnnBDBnnBDBaBB minimum, and present 

BBBBBBBnnnnnnBGBuBBaBnBn ,i £ -u • x xi 

BBBBBnnnnnnBBnBriBnnBHBn the fabric to the eye per- 

BBBBBnnnnnnBBncBGBnBBGBn e , ^ t "iu- 

• iBBnnnnanBBBDBBnBnBnnBn feet or nearly so. In this 
BBBnDDnnaBBBHnBnnBDBDBBa , n -, . 

BBnnnnDDBBBBBnBDBBnBDBna system of producing pat- 

■□□dddd««« dhd . dd . d . d . t ^ rns we ^ the ° b ^ is 

Fig. 46 

of most of the designs for 
fabrics for men's wear, and we certainly obtain a very 
great variety ; and they are used both for heavy fabrics, 
such as coatings and trowserings, and for many other 

37. Effects upon the Fabric. — In the illustration 
in Figs. 45 and 46 of the difficulty of combining two 
patterns one of which is a rearrangement of the other, 
we have not by any means shown all the difficulties, nor 
in the simplest form. In dealing with patterns which 
appear easy and simple, and in which the principle of 
rearrangement is carried out in its simplest form, we 
may find that the effect of the two portions in the 
fabric is very different ; and we cannot be too careful 
how we place them in juxtaposition. Suppose we take 
a pattern based upon a simple six-end twill, as in 
Fig. 47. We may have no doubt or difficulty about 



its working. The twill occupies the largest 
the fabric ; the stripe, a, occupies but a small 
portion, as does also b. In the order of in- 
terweaving of these three portions it would 
seem that there could be little difference, 
and there certainly is not so much difference 
as there may be in some patterns, but just 
enough to require caution and proper arrange- 
ment. It will be evident that in the twill 
portion the weft and warp will bend round 
each other in an equal degree, and con- 
sequently that the same quantities of warp 
and weft will be required to form a perfect 
cloth. The same may be said of the stripe 
by although it is not the same kind of struc- 
ture; but there is this difference between 
this portion and the twill : whereas in the 
twill every succeeding end and pick inter- 
weave differently — that is, not under and 
over the same threads — in the portion b there 
are three warp ends, and three weft picks 
together exactly alike, and therefore a greater 
number of threads per inch of the same size 
of thread could be introduced into a fabric 
of the structure b than of the twill cloth. 
In the portion a of the pattern each weft 
pick passes between alternate warp threads, 
and three succeeding picks are exactly alike, 
so that the warp in this case cannot exercise 
power over the weft, and make weft bend 
round warp in any degree, but the warp must 
bend round the weft. That being so, to 
make a perfect structure of the fabric there 
should be a greater number of warp than 
weft threads per inch. It must be clear that 
if we were to combine three orders of work- 
ing such as these in large patches or stripes, 
say of one inch each, there must be some 



portion of 



l igi 



























































[Chap. IV. 

difficulty in obtaining a perfect cloth. As lias already 
been said, the difference in this case is not so great as in 























Fig.' 48. 















Fig. 48a. 











Fig. 48b. 

many patterns which are combined ; still, it is sufficient 
to cause trouble if used in large patches. Then there are 


only two alternatives : we must use the stripes in small 
quantities, so that the difference in the order of working 
cannot assert itself as it would in large stripes ; or we 
must have the relations of warp and weft in our cloth 
such as to produce as nearly as possible a perfect cloth 
in all the three orders of working at the same time. Of 
course, each one will be something short of the true 
structure of a cloth of the class to which it belongs, but 
will not be so far removed from perfection as to be 
positively faulty or imperfect to the eye. We have next 
to show that from this system of combination, patterns 
of a very elaborate character may be produced, either all 
coming from the same simple base, or a combination of 
patterns of a different character. For this purpose we 
have prepared a few designs shown in Figs. 48, 48a, 
and 48b. 

38. Combination of Twills occupying Different 
Numbers of Ends. — Although we have a wide field in 
the class of patterns and combinations we have been 
dealing with, yet it is only the first step, and our power 
of obtaining varied patterns increases enormously as we 
depart from this simple system of combinations. At the 
same time, many of the patterns with which we are now 
about to deal are built upon the same basis — that is, the 
same principle of combination is employed. 

We have already pointed out how patterns may be 
readily produced by the 
combination of two twills. pDDBBBBnnBaBBDBBC'BnaBBBB 

x xl , . . DBBBBnaBDBBDBBnBDnBBBBna 

In the examples given m BBBDDBDBBDBBnBnDBBBBnaDB 


. & , , , . . ,. - DBBaBBaBDCBBBBaGGBBBBaaB 

simply the combination of BGBBDBDDBBBBaaaBBBBGGBGB 


two twills, each occupying DiaDiiiiDDDimnniriHCHi 


the same number of BBBBDDDBBBBanBCBBDBBGBnn 


ends ; but in many cases p . 49 

the combination of twills 

occupying different numbers of ends or picks may 

be very desirable, and we shall produce large patterns, 

and in many cases very elaborate ones. Take, for ex- 


ample, the pattern Fig. 49 ; we have the combination of 
a simple four-end twill with a three-end twill, an end of 
each alternately. It will be seen of this pattern that it 
differs from the combination of two twills, each occupy- 
ing the same number of ends, inasmuch as the two 
twills in this case fall in relation to each other in all 
the positions possible; consequently, we have all the 
variety in this one pattern which is obtainable, and, 
what is quite as important, the pattern can be produced 
in the most economical manner. As it consists of two 
simple twills, one occupying four and the other three 
ends, the whole pattern will require but seven healds 
for its production in the loom. We must, however, 
examine patterns of this description from every point of 
view. It is very easy and pleasant to see the advantages 
we may obtain by working in a certain manner, but we 
must also, at all times, look for whatever disadvantages may 
accompany it. It has been pointed out already that every 
end in a pattern should work as nearly as possible alike, 
so as to prevent variation in the tension during the process 
of weaving, or that some other safeguard must be re- 
sorted to to counteract any varying tension. In the 
pattern before us — Fig. 49 — we have a combination of 
two twills which interweave differently, one passing over 
and under the weft at intervals of two threads, above 
and below, the other over two and under one weft thread, 
or vice versa. That being the case, the pattern which 
interweaves most frequently, which has to bend round 
the weft more than the other, will of necessity " take 
up " more, or, in other words, require a greater length of 
yarn to produce a given length of fabric ; therefore, if 
the two threads are being given off side by side an 
equal length of each, one must of necessity gradually 
become tighter than the other. In this particular 
pattern the difference would be very slight, perhaps not 
so much as to cause any trouble to the weaver. That 
would depend to some extent on the class of material 
employed. If the thread be of an elastic nature — one 


which would stretch some length without breaking — it 
would be quite easy to produce this pattern ; but if the 
thread be of a stiff, brittle character, it would probably be 
a little difficult. Of course, there is always this to be said 
of patterns combined alternately, or, as it is technically 
termed, "end and end." Although there may be con- 
siderable difference in the order of working of the two 
patterns combined, the fact of their being alternate will 
tend, in a great measure, to neutralise the difference in 
the working, because that which interweaves most 
loosely will exert very little power over the weft, and so 
when the thread which is interweaving more intimately 
begins to have a greater tension than its neighbours, 
it will cause the weft to bend a little out of its course, 
and so decrease the tension upon the warp thread. 

In applying patterns of this character to the fabric, 
all these considerations must be carefully taken into 
account ; as also must one or two other matters which 
will have a material effect upon it. We have already 
shown how the elasticity or rigidity of the warp threads 
may affect it ; in the same manner, if the weft be of a 
very stiff material — one upon which the warp threads 
cannot exert much force — the warp has no opportunity 
of recovering itself by bending the weft. Again, if the 
warp threads be set very closely together, it is very 
difficult for the warp to act upon the weft, but the warp 
will always bend round the weft. In this case, care 
must be taken that the difference in the order of working 
is as little as possible ; in fact, it ought to. be accepted 
as a general rule, unless there be some specific object in 
view — a desire to produce some special effect — that the 
working of . each thread in the pattern be nearly 
alike. It very frequently happens that this is the 
case. For example, one half or any portion of the warp 
may be desired to form the ground-work of the fabric, and 
the other half may simply be used for the purpose of 
ornamentation. In such cases it may be a great advantage 
for the threads which form the ground- work to be as 


tight as possible, so as to throw up the ornamenting 
threads prominently. But even if such is not the case,, 
and it is desired to keep each thread nearly equal in 
tension, any inequalities in the order of working which 
would affect the tension may be perfectly neutralised 
in the process of weaving, by allowing the two sets of 
threads to come from two separate warp beams, and 
regulating the amount to be given off exactly according 
to the length required by the increased or decreased 
intervals of interweaving. It requires some little 
skill on the part of the weaver to accomplish this satis- 
factorily, but it is not one of the most difficult tasks, 
and it certainly is one which, as we shall have to show in 
reference to other fabrics, must be frequently resorted to. 

In the case of fabrics where difficulties might arise in 
consequence of the variation in the tension of the warp 
threads, we are still at liberty to apply this class of 
pattern by simply inverting it, making warp become 
weft and vice versa, or, in other words, combining the 
patterns pick by pick, instead of end and end alternately. 
If we do this, the pattern cannot be woven on so 
small a number of healds in the loom as in the other 
case, and of course the relative quantities of warp and 
weft must be reversed to produce a perfect fabric, but 
the ornamentation will be equally effective. 

39. — When Patterns produced by Combinations are 

Complete. — One question 

pnnnBnMDBnMDBDnrJDMBM rnio-hf TuvVhahlv ainw in 

DDBDHBnBGBHL]BnnnnBBBHB:Tj nngnt piooaoiy anse .in 

BCBBGBGBBGBGaaaBBBBBGGGG fhp minrl nf fhp Qfndpnf 


□■□BBGBQGGaBBHBBGaGaBCBB q fo xi pv f pn f n f + np 


BqBGGGGBBBBBGGGGBGBBGBGH r»affprn m'nrlnpprl "hv flip 

BaaaGBBBBBGGGGBGBBCBGBB'~ pattern piociuceci oy xne 

DDDBBBBBGGGGBCBBGBGBBGBG mm hi ni firm of «nr»li dm 


BBBBGGG„B^BH BCBBGBGGGGB n l A f w ill«a a« flin«P nppn 

■BDaaDBGBBGBGBBDBGaaaBBB P 1 - twllls as ™ose OCCU- 

Fig,50. Py m g three and four 

ends respectively. In all 

cases of the combination of two patterns the design must 

be carried out to such a point as will give both patterns 

employed complete at the same moment. In the case 


before us, when the four-end twill is once completed the 
three end twill is once and one-third complete ; when the 
four-end twill is twice complete the three-end twill will 
be twice and two-thirds complete ; and when the four-end 
twill has been three times repeated, the three-end twill 
will have been four times repeated ; they will, therefore, 
both be complete at the same time. Then, as the patterns 
are combined end and end, twelve ends will be required 
of each pattern to complete the design, or twenty-four 
ends in all ; but only twelve picks will be required, 
because in the warp the patterns are alternate with each 
other, but in the weft they are running simultaneously ; 
or if the patterns are combined pick and pick instead of 
end and end, twenty-four picks and twelve ends would 
be needed. 

A very great variety of patterns may be produced by 
this method of combinations, and, like those with which 
we have previously been dealing, they are made in a 
systematic manner. It will generally be found that 
the best patterns, and those showing the greatest 
variety of workings, are produced by the combinations 
of patterns, each occupying such a number of ends that 
they have no common measure. If we combine, for 
instance, two occupying six and four ends respectively, 
we shall have the pattern complete upon twenty-four 
ends — tw r elve of each — and twelve picks ; or one of the 
twills will have been repeated twice over, and the other 
three times. In that case, the two patterns would be 
placed in three positions in relation to each other only, 
as shown in Fig. 50. This certainly makes a fairly effec- 
tive pattern, but it does not show such great variety of 
working. If we alter one of those twills which form 
the base — make the six-end into seven, or the four 
into five — we shall alter the whole effect. In the one 
case we should require twenty-eight ends of each 
pattern, or fifty-six in all, and twenty-eight picks ; 
in the other we should require thirty ends of each 
twill, or sixty in all, and thirty picks, and in each case 



[Chap. IV. 

the two twills will be placed in all the positions in rela- 
tion to each other which are possible, as shown in Fig. 51. 
40. The Combination of Rearranged or Irregular 
Twills. — In the combination of twills which occupy 

different numbers 
of ends we may 
deal with them in 
the same manner 
as with those which 
occupy the same 
number, that is, 
combine them as 
simple regular 
twills, or one twill 
regular and the 
other rearranged, 
or both rearranged. 
Of course we can- 
not place them in 
as many positions 
in relation to each 
other as we can 
when they occupy 
the same number 
of ends, and so pro- 
duce a great num- 
ber of different 
patterns, because 
in one combination 
we have the two 
patterns in all the 
positions possible. 
Of one thing we 
must be careful — ■ 
in combining regular with broken or rearranged twills the 
result will be irregular. In fact, we may be guided by the 
well-known axiom that equals added to equals produce 
equals, &c., and put it into language which will suit the 

■ '^□□■■■□□□□■■■□□□□■■■□□□□■B 


















BaucjGBBBnDnnBBBDnnnBBBnnQnBB * 











case, and say regular twills combined will produce regular 
patterns, regular combined with irregular will produce ir- 
regular patterns, and irregular combined with irregular will 
produce regular patterns. These axioms must be carefully 
borne in mind, because a very great proportion of the 
patterns produced by the combination of regular with 
irregular twills are such that they could not properly be 
called patterns, but some few may be sufficiently regular 
to be worth while using and calling patterns. Take, for 
example, the patterns in Figs. 52 and 53 j in each case 

ggogbbbb nnnniiiininnBriH^HrBH^nnH, !■■■■ 



■DDDDiiiininrjiDiiainiB a ;:::b' jibidgggbhii 




Fig. 52. 

aaBBBagaaaBG . . ■ 

SBSaac dgbgb we nave a combination of regular 
■"□■■BnaSSSB with ^regular, the basis of the 
a h combination being shown at a and 

b in each. In the one it will be 
seen that the four-end twill is rearranged, or in broken 
order, and in the other the five-end twill is in the re- 
arranged order. Now, in both patterns, more especially 
in Fig. 52, there is some show of reason for the result 
being regular. Although the twill is rearranged, and 
the pattern resulting is not what is commonly known 
as a regular twill, yet there is a great amount of 
regularity about it. It runs continuously in the same 
direction, although the angle is not one of forty-five 
degrees, as in the four-end twill which accompanies 
it; yet the fact of the rearrangement being a regular 


One and giving a continuous twill, will cause it, when 
combined with another regular twill, to produce a 
regular effect. . But although the effect has the ap- 
pearance of regularity, it is not the character of regu- 
larity which is to be found in the patterns resulting 
from the combination of regular twills, but rather what 
might, perhaps, be termed regularly irregular ; yet the 
pattern is a pleasing one, and is of a style which might 
with advantage be employed in a great many fabrics. 
This illustration will serve as a guide as to what will 









Fig. 53. 

DBBGBaaaaaaG , , 

SBaSaaaaaBBa P roduce g 00(i patterns. Although 

SRSB2RRR5BR2 we sa y tnat tne combination of 

■UBUBLJlJUBUUB , " ... , - ... _ 

a h regular with irregular will produce 

irregular patterns, yet, when the 
irregularity of the pattern which is to form one of the 
bases is of the character shown here, the resulting 
pattern will, in all probability, be a satisfactory one; 
but it is not generally desirable to resort to such com- 
binations, unless the intention is to produce some special 
effect resembling a figure, as these combinations usually do 
41. Elongated Twills. — We have not yet done with 
the arrangement of patterns which assume a twill 
form, or which have a twill for their base. We may 
vary them still further than we have done in an 
infinite degree, but there are one or two special modes 

Chap. IV.] 




of arranging them which it will he necessary to deal 
with here. It was pointed out in an earlier chapter 
that twills often run across the fabric at an angle 
of more or less than forty-five degrees — that is, they 
may be nearly vertical, or nearly horizontal ; and in 
many cases such twills may be most readily produced by 
the combination of two or more 
twills " end and end," or " pick 
and pick," as the circumstances 
of the case may require. Al- 
though that is a ready mode of 
producing such patterns, yet 
very frequently when we desire 
to procure some special effect we 
may more readily obtain it by 
the simple process of elongation. 
We may take any ordinary twill 
for the base of our pattern, and 
draw it out or elongate it to any 
extent by simply making any 
number of ends or picks alike, 
as in Fig. 54 ; then we may alter the pattern so as to 
prevent a number of picks being alike, as it is in this 
pattern, by introducing some order of working twill or 
otherwise between the main twill, as in Fig. 55, when a 
small twill is run between the main twills, and in the 
contrary direction. 

This not only prevents more than one pick being ex- 
actly alike, but gives variety also to the pattern. The 
small twill may, of course, be varied, as well as the 
main twill, and it may be made to actually join, 
or finish quite clear of, the main twill ; though it is 
generally best not to let the two come in actual con- 
tact. Thus the pattern will be more decided and clear. 
In many cases figures or spots may be substituted for the 
small twill, or even introduced along with it, and so give 
again greater variety and character. 

Twills or patterns of this description are, after all, 








Fig. 54. 
















Fig. 55. 


only combinations of simple twills. If the picks in 
succession be examined, they will be found to consist of a 
series which, if separated from each other, and if all those 
which work in the same order be put together, would 
form a twill of themselves, so that the whole would be 
the result of the combination of two, three, four, or 
more simple twills. The same result might, of course, 
have been obtained by the simple process of combination. 
But what would be the advantage or disadvantage of 
either mode of working ? In the first place, when we 
proceed upon the system of combinations, if we desire 
to produce some special effect, we must use great care 
and judgment, and be thoroughly familiar with every 
possible form of twill, and their effects when combined 
with each other, or we could never be certain what would 
follow from a combination of any two or more patterns 
together ; in fact, our patterns would be more the result 
of chance than design. By the system of elongation we 
aim at once at a given effect ; we take the surest 
means of attaining the object we have in view, and 
consequently lose little time in experiments, and leave 
nothing to chance. It is certainly desirable to have 
easy methods of working to obtain a variety of patterns, 
but it is quite as desirable to be able to obtain whatever 
result we want at once by design, and leave nothing to 
accident. We must study all the short methods of 
economising time and labour, but we must, as far as 
we can, be sure that the results are those for which 
we are seeking, otherwise it will be better for us to 
study the doctrine of chances instead of the principles 
of design. 

42. Figured Twills. — In many cases we may desire to 
produce patterns having a figure running between the twill 
without having the pattern elongated, or without having 
recourse to the system of combinations. A definite re- 
sult is aimed at at once ; it is desired to produce a given 
effect without leaving anything to chance ; we desire, 
say, to produce a pattern of the character of that shown 


in Fig. 56. In this we have a decided figure running 
between the twill, and the angle of the twill is one 
of forty-five degrees. If we were to analyse this to 
find of what it consists, it may be said to be the result of 
the combination of portions of four distinct twills, but 
to attempt to produce the pattern by the system of com- 
binations would probably be an absurdity ; that is, to 
produce it as an original design. We might obtain what 
we are seeking, but again we are trusting to chance. 
If we wish to produce figured twills, we must proceed 
in a manner which will ensure what we are trying to 
produce. We must determine beforehand the character 
and proportions of the twill. We must determine 
also the character of the figure, and combine the 
two as the combination of twill and figure, not as a 
number of twills. Our readiest mode of working 
is, first to put down the twill upon paper, after we have 
determined its size and character, then to introduce the 
figure between, and continue or repeat the figure until 
complete. Of course the production of patterns of this 
class is dependent entirely upon the inventive faculties of 
the designer, and his ingenuity in combining two different 
orders of working so as to produce a harmonious whole, 
but there are certain rules which may assist him, and in 
some instances guide him. It is 

generally understood that variety Rggggggggggggggg 
in a design, if properly treated, ggBRHHSBHHSgSSHS 
may conduce to beauty. In designs ggggggggggggHggg 
for textile fabrics it is desirable in BDggnHggggaBBDgB 
many cases not only to make the BSSHgSSgHggggggg 
pattern continuous, but such that gggggggggggE Hig 
any repetitions of it shall not be ggggHgggggggggBH 

too flrmnrent to the pvp Vnr ■■□□□■■DDDBBDDDB 
wo apparent w me eye. j?oi BDDBBDBaDDBBaDBB 

instance, in making such patterns Fi gt 5$. 

as figured twills, we should not ar- 
range the figures in such a manner that they appear to 
run in straight lines, either longitudinally or transversely, 
in the fabric, or, to use the technical phrase, "their repeti- 


tion either in the warp or weft must not be in lines 
or rows." There must appear an equal and regular 
distribution ; there must be nothing which will be too 
striking or attract too much attention to itself to the 
cost of the rest of the composition. In the pattern 
before us — Fig. 56 — there is not much to fear on this 
score ; it is so small, and repeated at so short intervals, 
that no such difficulty could arise, but in the case of large 
patterns it might, and even sometimes in the case of 
comparatively small patterns also. In such case Ave may 
resort to the plan shown in Fig. 57, where the figure is 
a series of steps. Now, if these steps all formed in the 
same horizontal or vertical line, the appearance of the 
pattern would certainly be unpleasant ; it would simply 
present a series of lines straight across, or running the 
length of the piece, broken at regular intervals by 
the diagonal line ; but as it is, the lines are broken by 
the relation of the steps to each other, and we have con- 
sequently a more harmonious diagonal. The steps in 
the figure do not fall either immedi- 
DDDBSaaDHlnSSa ately under or alongside each other, 
InSSSSSnaS consequently there is nothing to 

SaDHSBaBaDDnn" break tlie diagonal line. We have 

inBBnSSnBI"" onl y g iven variety to it by the intro- 
Bi5335DC duction of the waved line. The 

dSSdd! idbb diagonal is the principal feature of 

I5E SffiSBSB the desi g n > the %« re is merel y an 

■■□S55S5S accessory, and each plays its own 


IdbbdbbdHb! Then we must arrange such figures 

nnBBnSSanDc an so that the y cannot form lines, and 
SSaBBDDi as we have said, this is more espe- 

DBBDDaDi ddbb cially necessary when dealing with 
bhRESbbbbBbb^b large figures, because they stand out 
Fig. 57. more prominently, and strike the eye 

more readily, and therefore any little 
defect or want of harmony is more apparent. But the 
question naturally arises, how can we ensure this 1 We 


must, as we have said before, leave nothing to chance. 
The most simple and ready manner of doing this is to 
make the figure occupy a number of ends or picks which 
will not be a measure of the number occupied by the 
diagonal. In Fig. 57 the number occupied by the 
diagonal is fourteen, the number occupied by the figure 
is four ; therefore at each repetition of the twill we 
do not have a repetition of the figure, but only at every 
alternate repetition. The variety would even be greater 
if the figure occupied a number which has no common 
measure with that of the diagonal, as, for example, the 
diagonal occupying fourteen, and the figure five ends, 
The repetition would not be so frequent; that is, the 
point where the twill and figure meet at the same 
moment would not occur so often, and consequently 
there would be less risk of the figure detracting from the 
diagonal, or breaking the line. 

43. When Figured Twills are Complete. — We 
have only one matter now to look at in connection with 
this system of combining twill or diagonal patterns and 
figures — namely, the determining the point where the 
pattern is complete ; and the principle which we applied 
to the combination of twills occupying different numbers 
of ends will also apply here — that is, carrying them 
forward to a number of which that occupied by the 
diagonal and the figure shall be a measure. Thus, 
in Fig. 57 the twill occupies fourteen ends and the 
figure, counted diagonally, occupies four ; then the 
number of which fourteen and four are both a mea- 
sure is twenty-eight, so that the pattern will require 
fourteen ends and twenty- eight picks, or vice versa, 
to complete it ; had the figure occupied ^ve ends and the 
diagonal still remained upon fourteen, then the number 
of picks required to complete the pattern would have 
been seventy, because that is the first number of which 
each is a measure. 

44. Combination of Different Orders of Working 
in Stripe Form. — We have now one other system of 


combining twills or other working for the purpose of 
producing patterns to consider, and in this, although 
the mere placing of the patterns together upon paper is 
much the same as some of those we have already con- 
sidered, yet the conditions or characters of the combinations 
may be such as to completely alter the structure of the 
fabric and to require special consideration of the relative 
quantities of warp and weft in each portion of the cloth. 
We will, in the first place, deal with the subject in 
the most simple manner, by combining two patterns 
of the plainest character. It often happens that we 
desire to produce a striped effect upon a fabric having a 
plain ground, and we desire to make this stripe stand 
out as plainly and prominently as possible, whether the 
stripe be of the same colour as the ground or of a 
different colour. Or it may even be that the material com- 
posing the stripe is different from that of the ground, 
and the order of working also different. We will take, 
for example, Fig. 58, and suppose in the first place that 
we are using one colour only, and one material only, 
so that we may see more directly the effect upon the 
fabric of the different orders of interweaving. In the 
first place, we have a number of ends weaving quite 
plain, or interlacing with each other alternately. We 
have then a number of ends weaving in the order of 
a twill, or interlacing with each other at intervals of 
four. Now, it must be obvious that if all the warp 
threads of which the cloth is to be composed are of 
the same thickness, are set equally close together, and 
come from the same warp beam, so that the same length 
of each be given off as the fabric is formed, the portion 
which is weaving plain cloth, being more intimately 
woven with the weft, will " take up," or become much 
tighter than the portion which is forming twill. In 
addition to that, the texture of the fabric in the plain 
portion will be much firmer than that of the twill portion. 
It is a generally accepted rule that all portions of a piece 
of fabric should be as nearly as possible equal in firm- 


ness of texture, and also that the portion which forms 
the ornamental part should certainly not be inferior to 
the ground or body of the fabric. Then we must resort 
to one of two expedients — either we must use thicker 
warp, or there must be a greater number of ends in 
the twill portion than in the other. If we use thicker 
warp simply, we increase the bulk of the fabric very 
much, and greatly increased bulk is objectionable. 
On the other hand, if we increase the number of ends 
simply, employing the same thickness of warp as for the 
ground, we again obtain increased bulk, though cer- 
tainly not in the same degree as in the previous case ; 
that is, if we bring the threads of the same weight as the 
ground warp sufficiently close together to make the twill 
portion as firm in texture as the plain, we shall not have 
so much weight as if we keep the number of threads 
in a given space, as in the ground, and increase the 
thickness of the threads to a sufficient extent to obtain 
the requisite firmness of texture, because the weight of 
threads does not vary in the direct ratio of their diameters, 
but as the squares of their diameters. This being the case, 
it is clearly better not to increase the weight of the 
threads employed in forming the stripe, but to increase 
the number of threads in a given space ; because we not 
only keep nearer the weight of the ground fabric, but we 
increase the firmness of the stripe, and so improve the 
appearance. Indeed, we may go a step further, and 
instead of using the same thickness of thread for the 
stripe as for the ground of the fabric, use a much thinner 
thread, and increase the number again proportionately, 
and we shall not only be bringing the relative weight 
of stripe and ground nearer together, but we shall be 
bringing the relative firmness of structure nearer the 
same level, and at the same time improving the appear- 
ance of the fabric in a great degree ; for in many cases, 
especially where only one colour is employed, the fine 
appearance of the stripe is the chief thing relied upon 
for the ornamentation. Well, suppose we don't resort 


to these expedients, we must see wliat will be the 
general effect of the fabric. In the first place, as we 
have already pointed out, the stripe portion will be less 
firmly interwoven than the ground ; it will consequently 
have a ragged, thin, and meagre appearance, and 
from this very thinness and looseness it will be liable 
to "fray," or the threads will slip upon each other, 
instead of being held firmly in their places. Again, it 
will probably present an unsatisfactory appearance 
from what is termed " cockling," or, in other words, 
one portion of the fabric will appear nice and straight, 
while another, the stripe portion, will be uneven and 
appear as a series of ridges and hollows. 

Such a state of affairs could not of course be satis- 
factory, therefore in all such cases we must take care 
that the ground and stripe are properly proportioned to 
each other, and the relative quantities of warp and the 
thickness of the warp in such portion properly propor- 
tioned to the order of interweaving. 

In the example (Fig. 58) we have taken the stripe 
as a simple twill, but very frequently the stripe is a 

satin, or it may be any 

DHnanansDHaHnnnHDnDBannH order of workina- wliirh 

HDHDHDHnBDannDaaananaaHa uluyi U1 woiKing which 

DBnanHnanananHanaaDDaBDa w iii qpno V fltp it <xnffipipn+1v 

BaBDBDBnBDBDBaDDBaDaBnnn Wlli sepaiaie re sumcieiruy 

Fig. 58. from the ground, and 

show it up with enough 
prominence. It may also be not only of a different 
colour, but also of a different material. It is no un- 
common occurrence to see the ground of the fabric 
formed with cotton warp and the stripe portion silk. 
In any case the true relations must be maintained 
between the stripe and the ground, and either the 
difference in the thickness, or the number of ends in 
a given space, or both, must be properly regulated to 
the order of interweaving, so as to secure the most 
perfectly balanced fabric. 

In many fabrics the ground will show a pre- 
dominance of weft on the surface, while the stripe shows 

Chap. V.] DOUBLE CLOTHS. 73 

a predominance of warp. Here the relative quantities 
will require even more careful attention, though perhaps 
in some few instances the predominance of weft in one 
case will, to some extent, neutralise the predominance of 
warp in the other. But we have already pointed out 
that, in general, when the weft or the warp predominates 
on the surface in the order of interweaving, it should 
also do so in the actual number of threads employed in 
a given distance. In any case it is necessary that great 
care should be taken to make the fabric as perfect as 



45. The Value of a Knowledge of Double Cloths. — 

Whilst considering the structure of fabrics, combined 
with their ornamentation, and before entering upon the 
question of ornament purely, there is one class with 
which we must deal — namely, double cloths. This com- 
prises a great many of the most useful fabrics made, 
and enables us to produce not only an useful article, 
but gives us great powers of ornamentation. Another 
feature of much importance in double cloth is that 
a thorough knowledge of fabrics of this structure is 
perhaps the best guide to the production of fabrics 
of a purely ornamental character. In fact, any 
one who has a complete mastery of the principles of 
the weaving of double cloths, and the methods of orna- 
menting with them, need not despair for a moment of 
being able readily to deal with fabrics of any description. 
For he must not only be able to ornament his fabric, 
but he must be able to follow in detail every separate 
thread, or set of threads, and deal with each, and 
apply it to the purpose for which it is intended, with 


a due regard to both the structure of the fabric of 
which this set of threads is composed and also to the 
order of working of the fabric and threads which may 
accompany it. 

46. We may inquire, in the first place, What is the 
object of making double cloths ? Generally speaking, we 
may be said to have one of two objects in view, or 
perhaps the two may sometimes be combined. First, we 
may make double cloths for the purpose of producing a 
fabric of great bulk and strength, and with great power 
of retaining warmth as an article of clothing ; second, we 
may make double cloth for the sole purpose of producing 
an ornamental fabric ; or we may combine the two by 
producing an article both useful and ornamental. In 
discussing this portion of the subject we must be 
careful to omit no detail which is likely to have a 
bearing upon future work ; and the student must be 
equally careful to be thoroughly master of it before 
he leaves it, otherwise he may find that some of the 
fabrics with which he may have to deal appear quite 
foreign to him, based upon a principle of which he has 
no knowledge, whereas they may have their first basis or 
ground-work in double cloths, perhaps of the most simple 
kind. It will not be necessary here to enter too 
fully into the mere arrangement of the design upon 
paper, as that has already been done in the " Practical 
Treatise on Weaving and Designing," already re- 
ferred to; but we must deal more especially with 
the structure of the cloth, and the methods of orna- 
menting it. 

47. Cloths with two Wefts and one Warp. — In the 
first place let us consider what are commonly known 
as double cloths, which are made for the purpose solely 
of producing a heavy fabric, chiefly with a view to 
making a warm, useful article of clothing, and then show 
the application of the same mode of working for pro- 
ducing an ornamental as well as an useful article. 

This class of what are called double cloths, is double 

Chap. V.] BACKED CLOTHS. 75 

only in one sense — namely, there are two separate 
wefts, one for the formation of the wearing surface, 
and the other for forming the back, or, as it is some- 
times and very properly called, the "liuing" of the 
cloth, and there is only one warp. Generally speaking, 
the pattern on the face of the fabric is a fancy one, 
and that on the back of as plain a character as the 
structure of the cloth will permit ; but sometimes, more 
especially when the article is intended to be reversible, 
both patterns are alike. In the latter case the most 
general practice is to make both patterns of a plain 
character, a simple twill or plain satin, the chief object 
being to cover the warp as effectively as possible, and at 
the same time to prevent the weft of the opposite side, 
which is frequently of a different colour, from showing 
through. We will first deal with the class where the 
back cloth or back weft is used merely to add to 
the weight, strength, or wearing qualities of the fabric, 
regardless of pattern. In such cases we should deal 
with the face fabric as regards pattern, proportion 
of weft to warp, and other conditions, just as if we 
were dealing with a single cloth. In fact, the con- 
ditions of structure must be just as if there were no 
probability of a back being put upon it. We must 
consider the back as a " lining " only. We must 
prevent it interfering with the face, either as regards 
the formation of the pattern or as affecting the relative 
quantities of warp and weft. The back must be merely 
an addition, introduced independently of the face, with a 
view to make the fabric serve the purpose for which it 
is intended more thoroughly, and must be interwoven 
with the warp so as substantially to form a part of the 
fabric, but must not, unless for some special reason such 
as we may have to point out, in any way interfere with 
the working of the face pattern. 

We will take for our first illustration one of the 
plainest patterns possible, so as to show clearly what 
is meant by this system of making double cloths or 



[Chap. V. 














Fig. 59. 






lining them. Fig. 59 is the working design for a 
plain twill cloth face and a back of weft upon it, such 
as is commonly used for cloths for gentlemen's coat- 
ings. The separate designs for face and back respec- 
tively are shown at a and b. In designing fabrics of 

this kind these are the two chief 
objects — namely, the proper re- 
lation of the back to the face 
pattern, and the proper relation 
of the warp and weft which 
forms the nice. Let us examine 
this pattern for the purpose of 
showing how we may best deal 
with these considerations. First, 
with regard to the relation of 
the two patterns to either. An 
& examination of the pattern in 

Fig. 59 shows that it is simply 
a combination of the two patterns a and b, but that 
combination is made in a particular manner ; in 
fact, the two patterns are specially arranged to suit 
each other. We are not proceeding upon the same lines 
of combination as we did when we were combining 
merely to produce new patterns for ornamentation, 
but we are proceeding to combine with a specific 
object in view. It will be observed in the design that 
at the point where the back weft passes over a warp 
thread the same thread is also passed over by the face 
pick of weft which goes before as well as by that which 
follows the back pick ; or, in other words, we have first 
arranged our face pattern, then introduced the weft 
which is to form the back or " lining," and interwoven 
that back weft into the warp at a point where it is on 
the under side of the fabric. By this means the weft 
forming the back is effectively prevented from coming to 
the surface of the fabric ; the face picks will close over 
it, and continue to form their own pattern as if the back 
had no existence. Thus we have here the first principle 

Chap. V.] BACKED CLOTHS. 77 

of making designs for double cloths ; and, although we 
are speaking of one class of double cloth only, that one 
feature belongs to all classes. We have now to con- 
sider more in detail the arrangement of the design. It 
may be said that, so long as the face pattern is perfect — 
a regular continuous twill, or a complete pattern of 
any description — it matters little as to the order of 
binding the back weft provided it does not interfere 
with the face ; but in this, as in the arrangement of all 
designs, we must have regularity and definite order, and 
the order of binding the back must be arranged to suit 
the face pattern, so that it will always fall in the proper 
place. Sometimes it may be that the pattern on the 
back is a twill, or it may be a satin or other broken 
order. In the case before us we have the back pattern 
arranged in satin order simply as a matter of necessity, 
so that it shall fall always in the same position in re- 
lation to the face twill, and also so that the binding 
falls equally in each twill and upon every end of the 
pattern. It will be noticed that there is one pick of 
the face weft to one of the back weft ; the face pattern 
is a four-end twill, the weft passing over two and under 
two ends alternately ; the back pattern passes over one 
and under seven ends. The twill of the face advances 
one end to the right at each pick, and the back pattern 
advances three ends to the left or five to the right at 
each pick. The face twill having advanced one to the 
right, and being twice repeated in the whole pattern, 
may be said to have brought the point in the face twill 
corresponding to that when the first backing pick is 
bound, to a position three ends to the left or five ends 
to the right from that binding point ; consequently, if 
we advance three in one direction or five in the other 
with our binding of the back, we shall place each back- 
ing pick in the same position in relation to the face, and, as 
three is not a measure of eight, the result will be a perfect 
distribution of the binding points ; each end will be 
occupied. We have, therefore, a perfect pattern on the 


back. Eacli of the face twills has an equal number of 
binding points, and those points always fall in the same 
relation to the face twills, and we have as perfect an 
arrangement of double cloth as it is possible to obtain. 
We will examine another arrangement of the same face 
twill with a back upon it, and then we shall be able to 
see more readily the defects which may occur. Take 
the pattern in Fig. 60. Here we have the same face 
pattern, but we have two picks of the face to one of 
the back. The pattern has, therefore, advanced two 
ends from the position of the first binding of the back 
before we come at the proper place for the binding of 
the next back pick, and, as two is a number which is a 
measure of eight, we cannot resort to the satin arrange- 
ment of the back pattern. We must, of course, keep 
the binding in the proper position in relation 
SnnSBnnS to tne ^ ace pattern ; we must also distribute 

DDDDacSS ^ ne Dm ding equally over all the twills ; 
■■"aSSaa therefore the arrangement shown at Fig. 60 
bdRbbdBb * s * ne only possible one. On the paper this 

DDBanDna nas a ^ the appearance of being perfect, and, 
■■ddSSdd perhaps, in some qualities of cloth would be 
■□□■■□□S so > ^ut it i s not a ^ that could be desired, 
dBdddcBo anc ^ * n °ther fabrics may be very imperfect. 
bbdBbbdd -^ will be noticed that, in consequence of 
Sbbddb the order of arrangement of the back pat- 

inBnnnaa tern, only every alternate end of the warp 
BBaBalna * s occupied by it ; and again, there is a 
Fig. 60. decided twill formed by the back weft run- 
ning in a direction contrary to the face twill. 
If the weft used for the back happened to be very thick, 
more especially if at the same time that of the face was 
fine, not only would this counter twill be distinctly 
visible, but the ends passed over by the back weft would 
tend to work much more tightly than the others, and so 
produce a fabric of a most imperfect kind ; in fact, it 
would be a quite unsaleable article, and the nature of 
the defect is such that it could not be remedied. 


Again, in Fig. 61 we have the same face pattern, but 
the back is different. In this case we have the same 
defect of the binding only occupying every alternate 
end, and the twill of the back running counter to the 
face, or rather the appearance of a twill — it is not in 
reality a twill ; but as the binding and this 
apparent twill are so much more frequent, ddSSdHS 
there would probably be less of the defect SddgBS 
visible on the face. There is, however, SS5nSS5a 
another matter to consider here — namely, BSSncS 
that the binding of the back into the warp dBSBcdBS- 
occurring at every fourth end, instead of at SBSSSBaH 
every eighth, as in Fig. 60, it might in some jHSBESS 
degree prevent the face weft going in so SnaaBS 
closely, and thus prevent the face from being SBSHSBaa 
made quite so fine in texture. In the fabrics SSBHES 
with which we are now dealing the general g SdddBS 
practice is to make the back weft of very yBnaSBSa 
much coarser and heavier material than the -pig. 61. 
face, the chief object being to increase weight, 
and to make the fabric more useful as a warm article 
of clothing, and at the same time to make it as cheaply 
as possible. It is therefore evident that great care 
must be taken to prevent the undue interference of 
the back with the face cloth, because we must make 
the face extremely fine, and free from faults or 

48. Pattern formed by Binding. — In some few 
instances the back weft is purposely brought through 
into the face to assist in the formation of patterns, or 
perhaps it would be more correct to say to form a pattern 
in addition to that made by the face weft. For instance, 
by bringing the back weft through to the face at 
regular intervals, and constantly upon the same end 
or ends, a stripe would be produced, and if to this were 
added one of the picks coming through in like manner 
all across the piece a check design would be obtained. 
Any pattern may be formed by bringing the back weft 


through at such points as may be required for its 

49. Reversible Cloths. — Another most valuable use 
to which this class of double cloths is largely applied 
is the production of reversible fabrics, which may 
be worn on either side at will — such as shawls, rugs, 
a great many mantle and other cloths. Usually in 
fabrics of this description, the pattern upon both sides is 
the same, but the colours are different. Fig. 62 shows a 
plan of a fabric of this kind which is simply a com- 
bination of two satins, one showing a greater pro- 
portion of weft than of warp to the surface, and the 
other the same quantity to the back. In this it must 
be observed that the same principle of arrangement is 
carried out as in Fig. 60 — namely the point where the 
back pick interweaves with the warp is covered on the 
face both by the preceding and the succeeding picks, 
so that there is no possible chance of its showing 
through to the face ; and, in the same manner, the point 
where the face weft interweaves is hid at the back by 

the back weft, so that both sides shall be equally 
□□555 P ei> f ec t. In this class of pattern we have to 
□■□□□ consider both sides of the cloth, unlike that in 
55H5! which the back is simply a " lining," and the 
□5555 ^ wo a ^ so differ in this respect — that whereas 
S55B5 reversible fabrics must have both sides equal in 
Fig. 62. quality or degree of fineness, and generally in 

texture or pattern also, those which are simply 
backed to give weight may have the back any degree 
of fineness or coarseness, and the pattern may be any- 
thing which will not interfere with the face. 

The colours of the weft used may be different for 
each side, or one side may be all of one colour and the 
other side any fancy stripe pattern. Generally the chief 
object in fabrics of this description is to make each side 
as different as possible from the other, whether they be 
both solid colours, or one side solid and the other striped, 
or both striped, and to ensure this distinction there must 


be absolute certainty that the weft of one side cannot 
possibly show through to the other, and that the warp — 
which may be of an indifferent colour — cannot be seen 
on either side. If the pattern be a twill, we may pre- 
vent the wefts from showing through to the opposite sides, 
but we cannot prevent the warp from showing, because, 
the order of interweaving being consecutive, each suc- 
ceeding warp thread is, as it were, laid bare, and must be 
visible on the surface of the fabric. 

Then to cover this the usual practice is to make the 
pattern a satin, so that by the order of interweaving 
being arranged at intervals, each succeeding pick has an 
opportunity of covering the binding of the preceding pick, 
and so securing a perfectly solid surface, and avoiding 
the possibility of the warp showing through. Of course 
in such cases there can be no pattern visible, except 
that formed by the varying colours of weft ; there is 
no pattern in the fabric formed by the interweaving of 
the warp and weft threads. 

50. Figured Reversible Cloths. — Although so far 
we have dealt only with reversible cloths in which we 
are dependent entirely upon the use of colour for orna- 
menting, we have other means still at our disposal for 
producing ornamentation upon them. It has been shown 
that we may have a fancy pattern on one side of 
the cloth, and a plain or simple twill on the other, 
and also that in fabrics where the working or order of 
interweaving the warp and weft is the same on both 
sides, it may be reversible for wear, and each side 
may be of a different colour or colours. We have 
now to deal with the ornamentation of this Matter class 
by figuring. . This mode of figuring differs somewhat 
from all other systems, though to a certain extent it 
resembles in style one or two methods with which 
we shall have to deal. We have already pointed out that 
in making reversible cloths we use two distinct wefts, 
one for each side of the fabric. In making figured rever- 
sible cloths exactly the same principles are involved, only 




[Chap. Y. 

instead of letting each weft remain always on the same 
side they are made to exchange places. Fig. 63 shows a 
section. The dots represent the warp threads just as we 

*~— </ 

Fi$r. Gl. 

.should see them if we were to cut the cloth and look at 
it as it has been cut, and the waved lines represent 
the weft, and show the order of interweaving with 
the warp. This section shows each weft forming a four- 
end twill pattern with the warp, but at the points a and 
b respectively the weft which has been on the face of the 
fabric passes to the back, and that which has been on the 
back comes to the face. This would be repeated at each 
succeeding pick, and the points where the tw^o wefts 
exchange places would alter according to the pattern to 

be formed. So that, assuming the 
two wefts to be black and white, 
we should have on one side of the 
cloth a white ground with black 
figures, and upon the other side a 
black ground with white figures. 
Of course the size, form, and order 
of distribution of the figures would 
be the same upon each side, being 
formed as they are simply by the 
two wefts exchanging places. In 
Fig. 64 we have a plan of a pattern 
showing this order of working, and 
forming a diagonal of black and 

■■Dili JBLjaaanDDB 










dBbbiidbbi ]b5dHb5 ^ite alternately. If each pick of 

weft be examined, it will be seen 
that for a given distance each 
comes to the surface of the fabric 
and then passes to the back, and 

the next succeeding pick works exactly the reverse, 




Fiff. 64. 

Chap. V.] 



Fig. 65. 

the point of exchanging places altering at each succeed- 
ing face pick in such a manner as to form the desired 

This system of figuring may be carried to any length. 
There is practically 
no limit to the 
variety of patterns 
we may produce. 
They may be large 
or small, simple or 
elaborate, at will, 
and the fabric will 
always be such as 
can be worn on 
either side. It may, 
perhaps, be as well 
to guard the student against one possible misconstruction 
of the words we have just used as to the variety of the 
patterns we may produce by this mode of working. What 
is meant is, that patterns, or, as they are usually termed in 
the trade, " figures," of the most varied forms may be pro- 
duced, but not that 
variety of colours 
may be introduced 
into the design* 
We have one colour 
of weft for one side, 
and another colour 
for the other side, 
and, as we have 
shown, the figure or 
pattern is formed 
by these exchanging 
places and occupy 

Fig. 66. 

ing alternate sides of the fabric ; therefore we have one 
colour ^ of ground, and a different coloured figure 
upon it on one side of the cloth, and exactly the 
reverse on the other side, so that the ground is one 


solid colour, and the figure is another solid colour in 
each case. Sometimes a variation is made, and one 
side of the cloth is striped in the ground ; in that case 
the figure of the reverse side is striped in exactly the 
same manner, as shown in Figs. 65 and 66; but that 
stripe in the figure will be more likely to spoil the effect 
than to add to its beauty, because in all probability, if 
the stripe be a small one, the figure will present a quite 
broken-up appearance, without any order, and if the 
stripe be a large one, it may be divided into two portions, 
one of one colour and the other of the other. Those 
portions may be equal or unequal, and unless considerable 
care and skill be employed, the divisions of the colours 
in the various figures will be very irregular. In any 
case the use of varied colours in fabrics of this class must 
be of a more or less stiff character, partaking of the 
stripe form ; and where the fabric is not figured — each 
weft remaining on its own side — they may be used with 
advantage ; but when figured, the greatest care must be 
taken that the figures are not too much or too irregularly 
broken up, otherwise the effect will be very unpleasant. 
If the patterns be of a regular character, as a diagonal, 
then the use of more than one colour may be decidedly 
advantageous, because the pattern being continuous, the 
striping will occur regularly, and will be no drawback, but 
may rather add to the beauty and variety of the design. 
Generally, any variety of colour in stripe form is con- 
fined to one side of the cloth, at any rate in figured 
goods, so that we have on one side a solid coloured figure 
on a striped ground, and on the other side a striped 
figure on a solid coloured ground. If both ground and 
figure were striped, the effect would probably be too 
much of a mixture, especially if the sizes of stripe in each 
case were similar. However, we must be guided at all 
times by the particular effect desired, and also by the 
due consideration of the purposes to which the fabric 
is to be applied, and suit our pattern to the require- 
ments of the case as best we can. 


51. Cloths with two Warps and one Weft. — The 
second class of double cloths, or what is known as double 
warp faced cloths, consists, as before said, of two warps 
and one weft, and is really the class with which we have 
just been dealing inverted, warp becoming weft, and weft 
becoming warp. The uses to which this class of fabric 
is put are probably much fewer than the double weft 
face, but still sufficient to make it well worth while for 
the intending designer becoming thoroughly master of 
the principles upon which it is based. This principle 
of structure is most generally applied to fabrics in 
which both sides are intended to be alike in pattern 
and quality, though they may be different in colour. 
The arrangement of the plan upon paper is precisely 
the same as for double weft face, taking weft for warp, 
and vice versa ; for example : Fig. 62, if read warp for 
weft, would be a plan of a double warp 
face, as shown in Fig. 67. We need not, bdi ]ddbbbd 
therefore, dwell at length upon the ar- iddbbbqbq 

\ «,, i • i n ,i. BaBDBDDGBB 

rangements ot the design or plan ot this 
class of fabric, seeing that all we have 
said of the double weft face applies also to the double 
warp face, so far as it is used in practice. We must, 
then, apply ourselves to the consideration of the uses of 
double warp face to the production of useful fabrics, and 
see how far what we have said of double weft face is 
applied in practice to double warp. 

It has already been pointed out that this principle of 
structure is most generally applied to fabrics where both 
sides are alike in quality and structure, as, for example, 
to ribbons used by ladies for trimming, when one 
side is of a totally different colour from the other, but 
both present the same fine satin appearance. In fact, it 
is to this class of goods more than any other that the 
double warp face is applied. For this reason such goods 
are usually made with fine silk on the surface, and in the 
process of weaving an immense number of threads of 
such fine material may be used per inch as warp. Their 


very fineness, and the smooth nature of the silk thread, 
will not create any difficulty in the process of weaving ) 
and the small number of threads per inch in the opposite 
direction or weft enables the weaver to produce a much 
greater length of fabric per day than if the cloth were 
made on the double weft principle, where the con- 
ditions would be reversed ; but in the case of woollen- 
faced goods these considerations would not hold, because 
of the thickness and roughness of the thread, which 
would render it quite impossible to weave with the 
number per inch which would be required to produce 
the necessary fineness of fabric. In some few instances 
the use of two warps is applied to fabrics made from 
wool for the same purpose as the use of two wefts — 
namely, to obtain increased weight. In such cases the 
face, or fine warp, forms the fabric proper with any 
pattern that may be desired, and the back warp forms 
merely a lining of any loose pattern which will not 
interfere with the face. Such fabrics are not so easy to 
weave as if they were made with two wefts instead of 
two warps, because of the thickness and roughness of the 
threads \ but the necessity for employing two warps may 
often arise from the fact that our looms are not adapted 
to the production of double weft cloths. For instance, 
if our looms are constructed to weave with one shuttle 
only, we are only able to use one weft ; and if the 
material we are using for the face cloth be very fine, we 
cannofc afford to use that for the lining also, because the 
cost of the cloth would be so much increased without a 
corresponding advantage. Then we must resort to the 
use of an extra warp for the back, and although we 
may increase the difficulties of the weaver, we shall, 
by the use of coarser material for the back, be enabled 
to produce the fabric at a cheaper rate. We may say, 
generally, that the use of the double warp cloth is 
confined chiefly to the two classes of goods we have 
named, being rarely used for producing figures, though 
perhaps in some few instances it may be so employed, 


but those will, in most cases, be where the warp is silk, 
or very fine yarns in other materials; but the loose 
fibre upon yarns made from other materials than silk 
renders it somewhat difficult to weave with the number 
of threads per inch required to make the fabric sufli- 
ciently fine, even if the yarns are spun to very fine 

X 52. Two separate Cloths. — We now come to the 
third and most generally useful class of double cloth — 
namely, where there are two separate and distinct fabrics, 
each formed with its own weft and warp — and the con- 
sideration of the various purposes which it may serve ; 
and we must urge the student to pay the closest attention 
to this class of fabric, and make himself thoroughly master 
of it. A complete knowledge of the two preceding 
classes will help him very much in understanding this 
class ; but he must not be content with this. If he 
wishes to be a competent designer for fancy cloths he 
must study this branch until he has entirely mastered it. 
To begin, let us examine the manner in which 
double cloths of this class are produced. In the first 
place, we have 
a separate warp •/• A • • /T""T\« • fZ .\ » »«i 

and weft for ^ssssss^- ^ sssss ^> ^ ssss ^v " j 

i i n 1 -So 3%o effo o\yp oJ=?o ©\KP ot 

each cloth ; and ^ \sssss^ ^Wsss^ X&ss-w; 

in making our Fig. 68. 

working plan 

each must be dealt with by itself, so far as pattern 

goes, as though the other had no existence. We 

have in Fig. 68 a section showing two cloths, both of 

which are twilled ; or, rather, we show two picks 

(one of each cloth) which may each be taken as 

being the first pick of a twill, in which weft passes 

over and under two threads alternately. Each weft 

interweaves with its own warp only, and the tw^o 

cloths are consequently quite independent. They are 

both woven at once, but the material forming each cloth 

is confined to that cloth alone, and takes no part in 


nor combines with that forming the other cloth in any 
degree. The plan of this cloth is shown in Fig. 69. In 
it the first, third, fifth, and seventh ends and picks 
are those which are to form the face, or upper cloth, 
and the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth ends and 
picks are those which are to make the back or lower 
cloth. Now, if the dots upon those ends 
■■□■§■■■ an d picks which are to form the face cloth 
dbBhESS ^e examined, it will be seen that they make 

dbbSSSBS a regnal* twill, and those dots which are 
■laHLJBDB u pcm the back ends and picks only also 
Fig. 69. form a regular twill ; but upon those picks 
of weft which are to form the face cloth 
dots are placed at the point where they intersect the 
warp threads of the back cloth. In all cases we are 
assuming that those dots represent weft as passing 
over warp. That being so, it will at once be seen 
that the face weft passes clear over every end of the 
back cloth ; and in like manner the weft of the back 
cloth passes under every end of the face cloth, so that 
each weft interweaves with its own warp only, each warp 
being kept out of the way — lifted up or left down, as the 
case may require — while the weft of the other cloth is 
being inserted. Then, in arranging the plans for two 
separate cloths, this is the principle upon which we must 
proceed : £rst put the face-cloth pattern upon those ends 
and picks which are to form that cloth, then do the same 
with the back cloth, and next arrange that as each pick of 
weft is inserted they interweave with the warp of the 
cloth to which they belong only. 

53. Relation of the two Cloths to each Other. — 
So far as the arrangement of the plan of the fabric is 
concerned, the foregoing is perhaps sufficient to indicate 
the general mode of procedure, but we have now to 
consider the relation of the two cloths to each other. 
Double cloths of this class are capable of a great variety 
of arrangements, but they may be classed generally 
under four distinct heads : first, when the two cloths are 


equal in quality and pattern ; second, when they differ 
in pattern only ; third, when they differ in quality 
only ; and fourth, when they differ in both quality 
and pattern. Of those in use, it may be said that the 
first and fourth of the above are by far the most general, 
and, as we shall proceed to show, for quite sufficient 

In considering each of these four types of double 
cloths one question must be kept constantly before us — 
namely, the relations of the warp to the weft and to 
the pattern. It must be evident if the two cloths are 
equal in quality and pattern, the "take up," or shrink- 
age of both will be equal, both in the warp and weft, 
but if they are equal in quality and different in pattern, 
should one pattern interweave more loosely than the 
other, the " take up " of one will be greater than of the 
other, and if they are bound together in the process of 
weaving, that which works most loosely will be liable to 
" cockle" on the. surface. Perhaps it may be done 
for a purpose ; if so, well and good, but generally it is 
desired to obviate such an effect and make the surface of 
the cloth as smooth as possible ; in fact, to give it all the 
appearance of a single cloth. In that case the greatest 
care must be taken to make the cloths equal, and if they 
must for any reason differ either in quality or pattern, 
every precaution must be observed to ensure the "take 
up " being equal in both. Or, if the two cloths be made 
from materials which possess in a different degree shrink- 
ing properties, and which may be differently affected in 
the process of finishing the goods, then they must be made 
to neutralise each other, or some influence must be 
brought to bear which- will neutralise them in the fullest 

We will first deal with cloths which are equal both 
in quality and pattern. Such cloths are usually made 
for the same reason as some of the double weft face 
cloths, namely, to produce greater weight, or to make 
the fabric reversible — more generally the latter ; and in 


such cases the two fabrics, though equal in all other 
respects, will be different in colour, or one may be a 
solid colour, and the other a stripe or check. In any 
case the same principle of making the plan is carried out 
as has been already indicated in Fig. 69, the warp 
and weft of each cloth being arranged alternately, end 
and end or pick and pick, and each weft interweaving 
only with its own warp. 

54. Binding Double Cloths. — Cloths of this descrip- 
tion have usually to be bound together, so as to make 
them appear as one cloth, and in fact to become one 
cloth. In such cases the warp of one has to interweave 
in a greater or less degree with the weft of the other ; 
but this must be done so as not to interfere with the 
pattern of either, and if the two are of different colours, 
they must not show through each other at the point of 
binding. This being so we must select a point where 
the weft of one cloth and the warp of the other meet, 
if possible at a point where one or both are inter- 
weaving very loosely, so that there will be no proba- 
bility of the two being so intimately interwoven as to 
show one cloth through the surface of the other. 

Again, we must consider whether we desire to pro- 
duce in the cloth a feeling of firmness of texture or 
otherwise. If we want the cloth to be of a firm texture, 
we must bind the two separate parts very frequently 
and intimately ; if we want softness and looseness, we 
must bind them only as often as will hold the two 
together, and no more. This knowledge of the fre- 
quency or firmness of the binding can of course only be 
gained by actual practice, combined with a knowledge 
of what is wanted in respect to looseness or firmness of 
texture j but no matter whether the binding be frequent 
or otherwise, the same principle will hold good as to 
the selection of the point where the binding shall take 

55. Relation of the Pattern of each Cleth to 
Facilitate Binding. — In making the selection of the 


point of binding, it is often necessary to consider 
the relations of the patterns of the two cloths to 
each other, so that the weft of one and the warp of 
the other may be brought into such a position that 
they can be interwoven in the readiest and the most 
perfect manner. The surest method of working is to 
make a section first of the two patterns, and place the 
two sections together so that the weft of one cloth at 
some point where it is interweaving loosely will be 
immediately above or below the warp of the other at a 
point where it also is interweaving loosely, and by that 
means the designer can see at a glance the best relation 
of the two patterns so as to secure the best binding 

56. Figuring with two Cloths. — The most useful 
purpose to which double cloths of this class can be 
applied is in the production of figured goods, the 
figuring being obtained by the two cloths exchanging 
places, in a similar manner to the weft exchanging 
places in double weft face goods. And there is this 
decided advantage in figuring with two separate cloths 
which are equal in structure — that each may be either 
perfectly plain or of any texture which may be desired ; 
and if the weft of each be of the same colour as the 
warp with which it is interwoven, we shall have a 
perfectly solid coloured figure upon an equally solid 

Figuring with two separate cloths of this description 
is practised in the production of a very largG variety of 
fabrics, and in all cases the results are most satisfactory ; 
for we have not only a strong fabric, but a very warm 
one, and one also capable of resisting both strain and 
friction. These advantages, coupled with that of great 
facilities for ornamentation, make it a most useful 
class, and one which may be resorted to for a variety of 

57. Cloths of the same Quality but different 
Patterns. — We must now turn our attention to the 



[Chap. V. 

second of the four classes — namely, those in which the 
fabrics differ in pattern but remain of the same quality. 
In the use of the term "same quality" it must be 
distinctly understood that we simply refer to the 
number of threads per inch of both weft and warp, the 
thickness of the yarn being exactly the same in both 
cloths, and not to the quality of the fabric as it will be 
affected by the structure or order of weaving. It must 

be our object to 



show that where 
two cloths which 
are woven together 
are made from the 
same material, it 
requires the greatest possible care to insure the quality 
of the two being the same in texture as well as in the 
material from which they are made. The pattern of 
each cloth must be so arranged as to secure this, other- 
wise the fabrics will not be perfect. 

We will begin, for example, with an illustration of 
the simplest kind, and combine two patterns which are 
probably more known and used than any other — that is, 
a four-end twill and a plain cloth, as in Figs. 70 and 71. 
Suppose we are weaving two cloths together, one of 
which is plain and the other the twill given here, and 
that the threads per inch both in warp and 
weft, and the thickness of these threads, are 
the same in both. The two could not be 
equal in texture. One would be much firmer 
than the other ; they could not both be 
equally perfect in structure. If the quantity 
or thickness of the material be arranged to 
suit one of the patterns and to make it a perfect fabric, 
it could not make the other equally perfect. Perhaps a 
medium might be found — the plain cloth made heavier and 
firmer than it should be, and the twill lighter and looser, 
so that neither should be so far removed from a true and 
perfect structure as to be so imperfect as to be objection- 





Fig. 71. 


able ; and, at the same time, the two might be so intimately 
bound together that the plain or stronger fabric would 
support, and to some extent improve, the strength and 
quality of the twill cloth. Still, with all these pre- 
cautions, there would be danger of the fabric being 
imperfect. In the process of weaving the plain cloth 
would work very tight and firm, and would require a 
greater length of warp to make a given length of cloth. 
Again, not only will there be more shrinkage in the warp 
(which may be overcome by letting the two warps come 
from different warp-beams), but there will be more 
shrinkage in the weft, because of its having to bend more 
round the warp threads in a plain cloth than in a twill. In 
some cases, perhaps, this may be advantageous, because if 
the two cloths are sufficiently bound together it will in its 
shrinkage carry the twill cloth with it, and so give 
greater roundness to the twill. On the other hand, if 
the fabric has to undergo a process of finishing, which 
will cause shrinkage, the twill cloth, because of the very 
looseness of the threads, will be liable to shrink more in 
the finishing than the plain one, and so counteract its 
influence. But in fabrics of this description the two 
must be bound together very closely. It is difficult 
to estimate the exact amount of shrinkage which is 
likely to take place relatively in the two cloths, and 
more especially if the process of finishing be a 
severe one, or if the material be of a nature which will 
assist the shrinkage, as, for instance, in woollen cloths 
which are milled. If, in such cases, the two cloths are 
too loosely bound together, or the points of binding are 
too far apart, that which shrinks most, even if it be 
only in a slight degree, will cause the other one to form 
bubbles, or' " cockle," and so give a most unsatisfactory 
appearance to the whole. 

It is even more difficult to deal with fabrics of this 
class if we attempt to figure with them in the same 
manner as when the two cloths are equal in quality and 
texture, because usually in figured double cloths there 


is no binding introduced, except where the two cloths 
intersect each other. Consequently, if one should shrink 
more than the other, the " cockles v or bubbles would 
exactly correspond with the figure. There are double 
cloths where an effect similar to this is aimed at, but in 
such we must adopt means which will ensure the even- 
ness and regularity of the embossed character which it 
will present ; we must not trust to chance, or the possi- 
bility of the effect being produced by one shrinking more 
than another. It may be all very well to rely upon it 
to some extent, but we must not do so too much, other- 
wise we shall probably be often disappointed. 

It will readily be seen that the combination of two 
cloths of the same quality, so far as the number of 
threads per inch and thickness of these threads is con- 
cerned, but of different patterns, is not a desirable 
thing to practise, unless for some specific purpose; 
and even when resorted to great care and skill must be 
exercised to secure the proper result. Sometimes, per- 
haps, it may be necessary, but it is well to avoid it as 
far as possible, and where it must be employed, let the 
conditions be examined with the greatest care, otherwise 
disappointment will be sure to follow. 

58. Cloths of the same Pattern, but different in 
Quality. — What has been said of cloths which are of the 
same quality but differ in pattern will apply practically 
to cloths which are of the same pattern but differ in 
quality. For instance : if we make two cloths together 
in the same loom, both of the same pattern, and both 
having the same number of threads per inch, but the 
threads of one cloth of a different thickness from those of 
the other, the two cannot possibly work well together, or 
assimilate ; and it is an imperative condition in nearly all 
double cloths that the two must assimilate and combine 
to form the same fabric ; but if one be very fine, and the 
other be very coarse, this is scarcely possible. 

It may be said, if we combine two cloths of the 
same pattern, each composed of threads of different 


thicknesses, we may vary the number of threads so 
as to compensate for the difference in thickness. That 
is perfectly true ; but there must be some harmony 
between the relative number of threads in each cloth. 
Suppose, for example, one had, say, sixty threads per 
inch, whilst the other had eighty-five, there would be 
a difficulty in weaving. In the first place, they could 
not be arranged satisfactorily in the reed, nor could 
the weaver arrange the succession of the picks in any 
definite order without an immense amount of labour. 
The points of binding the two together would be ever 
varying in relation to the pattern, and altogether there 
would be endless confusion in the work. To weave 
double cloths satisfactorily it is imperative that there 
must be regular order of succession of the threads of 
both warp and weft; that is, they must be alternate, 
or two of one cloth to one of the other, or some such 
order. Then it follows that if the patterns be equal, 
and the threads are alternate, the diameters of the 
threads must be equal. If the patterns be equal, and 
the order of succession or proportion of threads in one 
cloth be two to one, then the diameter of the threads 
must bear the same relation to each other ; and what- 
ever the proportion of threads in one cloth be to the 
threads of the other, their diameters must bear the same 
relation. Fabrics of this description are often made, but 
unfortunately the true ratio of the threads per inch and 
their diameter are not always considered, and even if 
they are, they are in many cases considered upon a 
false basis, the designer proceeding upon the assumption 
that the diameters of threads vary in the direct ratio of 
their weights, instead of the ratio of the square root of 
their weights. This false assumption is probably a 
greater source of trouble to the makers of double cloths 
of all descriptions than anything else. No matter what 
may be the character of the fabric, the true ratio of 
the diameter should never be lost sight of from first to 


Cloths of this class are frequently used, more es- 
pecially where it is desired to have a heavy, strong 
fabric with a very fine surface. The face may be 
made as fine and the back as coarse and heavy as we 
please, so long as we preserve the proper proportion 
between the two ; in fact, the back becomes simply 
a "lining," something to give weight and strength. 
Fabrics of the most beautiful texture on the face, and 
yet of a very heavy, useful character, may be made upon 
this principle, and it is capable of application in a great 
many ways. At the same time, although the texture 
may be varied, the patterns are not much varied in 
cloths of this class, but are confined chiefly to plain or 
simple twills, for the reason that it would be absurd to 
make the back pattern a fancy one, when it is intended 
only as a lining. 

59. Cloths where both Quality and Pattern are 
Different. — If we wish to produce a fabric with a fancy 
face, and gain weight and strength by putting in a lining, 
we must resort to the fourth class of double cloths, where 
pattern and quality are both different. Here we 
have at command all the capacity of ornamentation 
which single cloths give, combined with the means of 
obtaining weight and strength, by the use of double 
cloths. Double cloths of this type are perhaps more 
used than any other. Throughout the woollen trade, 
in making cloths for men's wear, they are almost 
universal, and in many other branches they are also 
largely used. Generally such cloths are made with some 
fancy pattern on the face fabric — fancy, not only in the 
order of interweaving, but also by the use of colour- 
while the back cloth is either a perfectly plain one or a 
simple twill. The face cloth is usually very fine, made 
from fine material, while the back is coarse and heavy. 
Of course the face cloth may be made as elaborate as 
possible, and the back as plain as possible; in fact, the 
plainer the back, provided it will admit of a sufficient 
quantity of material being put in, the better, because 


the plainness .adds to the strength by the warp and weft 
being so intimately interwoven. 

The arrangement of the pattern on paper for this 
class of fabric is, of course, precisely the same as for 
cloths which are equal in both quality and pattern, 
only instead of the threads of warp and weft being 
alternate, they will generally be two of face to one of 
back^ or in such proportion as is required to give the proper 
weight or thickness of cloth, or to produce any desired 

In making double cloths of this class the cultivation 
of the habit of dealing with each independently of 
the other is of the greatest value, so that the designer 
may know exactly what is the structure of each, and 
be able to see what is the pattern upon it at a glance ; 
he can then compare their relative orders of working, 
and select his binding places with certainty. Of course 
the same principle of binding must be followed in 
this class of cloth as in the preceding, but in many 
cases there is much greater difficulty of binding than 
in the others. In the first place, the difference in 
the quality and thickness of the yarns makes it 
necessary to select binding places where there can be 
no risk of their showing through to the face ; and it 
is most advisable, to assist perfect binding, to select 
the two thinnest materials ; for example : if the back 
cloth be a very coarse, heavy one, in most cases the 
weft will be thicker than the warp, and the back weft 
will certainly be thicker than the face weft ; so that it 
would be very desirable, in such a case, to bind the two 
together by lifting a back warp thread, and allowing a face 
weft thread to pass under it. Of course this must be 
done in accordance with the rule mentioned for binding 
two equal cloths together — namely, that the back warp 
must be on the upper side of the back cloth, or next the 
face cloth, and the face weft must be on the under 
side of its cloth, so that neither is drawn out of its 
regular course more than the mere thickness of the thread, 


Then the second, and in many instances the greatest, 
difficulty arises from the relation of the two twills 
to each other. If the two patterns, for example, oc- 
cupy such a number of ends each that they are not 
both complete at the same time, or, in other words, that 
the number of ends occupied by the back pattern is not 
a measure of the number occupied by the face, then at 
every repetition of the face pattern the back will fall in 
a different position in relation to it, and a binding place 
selected at one point which might be perfect would be en- 
tirely wrong at the next repetition of the pattern. We 
will take, for example, a ten-end pattern for the face and 
a four-end pattern for the back, and make a section as 
shown in Fig. 72. 

This pattern cannot be complete until twenty ends of 
each are gone over, because that is the first number of which 
ten and four are both a measure. Had the relative quanti- 

ties of face and back cloth threads been two to one, then it 
would have required forty threads of face and twenty 
of back to complete it, and consequently the difficulty of 
binding would have been greater. However, we will 
examine the binding of this pattern. We have selected 
our first binding point at a ; the next repetition of the 
face pattern is at b, but if we bind at & we are not 
taking an end from the back twill corresponding to that 
we have taken at a, and if the binding at a is perfect 
that at b cannot be. 

Again, if we take every corresponding end of the 
back twill, they will fall at c, d, and e. Now, every one 
of these points occupies different positions in relation to 
the face twill, and if the weft be brought from the face 
under the back at these points, some of them would be 


very imperfect. Take, for instance, the point d, where 
we should have to bring the face weft through its own 
warp to bind under the back end. Instead of weft of 
one cloth and warp of the other being together, we have 
the warp of both cloths together, the weft of one cloth 
above and that of the other cloth below them, so that it 
would be quite impossible to bind them perfectly at such 
a point. It will be obvious that nothing but great 
care in selecting the points at which the binding is to 
take place, and in arranging the relation of the two pat- 
terns to each other so as to facilitate this selection, can 
ensure perfect fabrics, more especially when the two pat- 
terns occupy different numbers of ends, and fall in 
different positions in relation to each other in consequence. 
Of course, having found one or two places where binding 
can take place if the two patterns run concurrently, as 
they very frequently do, there would be no further 
trouble. We can bind as often as we please simply by 
following up the line of pattern, and always binding at 
corresponding points. Sometimes, though, we are de- 
barred from this, and we have another kind of difficulty 
presented to us. Suppose we have on the face a fancy 
twill running, say, in a vertical direction up the fabric, 
one which may be the result of the combination of two 
or more twills, or simply produced by the process of 
elongation, as, for instance, in Fig. 49 or Fig. 55, and we 
are putting a back cloth of an ordinary twill along with 
it. The two patterns running at different angles, we should 
have to find fresh binding places at every point where we 
wish to bind. Because of the different angles, the two pat- 
terns could not occupy the same position in relation to each 
other at any two points, except at such distances apart, 
determined by the repetitions of the back pattern bringing 
it into concurrence with the face, as would probably be 
too great for binding purposes. At any rate we can 
never deal with the binding of such patterns in the same 
easy manner as we can where the two twills run con- 
currently. When we are using such patterns as this 


for the face it is generally better, if we can, to use a 
plain back, not only because of the binding, but quite as 
much because the different angle of the two twills may 
make one cloth draw the other a little out of its proper 
place, and so cause " cockling." We cannot always use 
a plain cloth, perhaps, because of the weight of fabric we 
wish to obtain, but we should do so wherever we can, 
and avoid whenever possible — and it is possible in most 
cases — the combination of two twills which do not run 
at the same angle. 

60. Forming Patterns on Double Cloths by Bind- 
ing. — The binding of double cloths may be used for the 
purpose of producing patterns ; and in certain classes of 
goods with which we shall presently have to deal the 
whole of the figuring is produced by binding, but in 
considering the subject generally we may point out how 
the figure may be most effectively produced. Of course 
such patterns are obtained by binding the two cloths to- 
gether as firmly as possible all round the outline of the 
figure ; for instance, if we wish to make a check pattern 
upon a cloth by binding, as is frequently done in worsted 
coatings, and also in many woollen goods. Along the 
line of the check, both warp and weft way, we make the 
two cloths become one, not at intervals, as in ordinary 
binding, but throughout the length of the piece upon 
the warp threads, and across the piece upon the weft 
threads, which mark the line of the check. These 
patterns may be made as fanciful as we please, but 
generally in the cloths we have named they are con- 
fined to stripe or check form. 

61. Relations of Face to Back Cloth in both 
Quality and Pattern. — Before we enter into the question 
of the application of double cloth to particular fabrics, 
we must consider the relation of the back to the 
face cloth in all its aspects. We have already examined 
the relation of the two cloths to each other when they 
differ in pattern only, and when they are the same in 
pattern but differ in quality. We must now proceed 


to the examination of those which differ both in 
quality and pattern. As has been already pointed 
out, the fabrics which differ in both quality and 
pattern are far more numerous than the other classes ; 
and we may say that it almost necessarily is the case, 
for if we are making a fancy fabric, and putting a back 
cloth upon it which is intended merely for a lining, we 
usually make the lining as simple a pattern and as cheap 
a fabric as possible. As a matter of course, the face 
cloth — that which is to be seen, and which is to be the 
wearing surface — must receive the first attention. We 
must make that not only a fancy fabric in the great 
majority of cases, but we must make it as unexceptionable 
as we can. It must be what is termed a well-balanced 
cloth, perfect in structure. The relative quantities of 
warp and weft must be properly apportioned according 
to the pattern, and, in fact, every care taken that it is 
treated properly, as if it were a single cloth. We must 
then consider the back. Usually, as we have seen, 
the back cloth may be made as plain as possible, and 
if not actually a plain cloth, it must be a twill of 
the simplest character, and only just sufficiently loose 
in its order of working to permit of the quantity of 
material being put in to give the required weight. It 
too often happens that the pattern of the back or 
the thickness of the threads are determined by arbitrary 
rules, or perhaps more frequently by guess-work, or 
"rule of thumb." Now, if the two fabrics are to be 
perfect, and neither cloth to interfere with the other, 
as we have shown they may do, they must both be con- 
structed equally firm. Not that the back cloth must be 
as fine as the face, or that the pattern must be in the same 
order of interweaving, but that the thickness of the 
yarn and the ends per inch must be suited to the pattern 
in one cloth as perfectly as it is in the other. The 
quantity of material in one must not be such as to 
make a firm, stiff fabric with the pattern in which it is 
being woven, while that in the other is making a loose, 


flabby article; they must be as nearly equal as possible. 
If the face cloth has two threads of warp and weft 
to one of the back, it does not necessarily follow 
that the weight of the back threads is double the 
weight of those forming the face ; but we must take 
first their relative diameters into account, and then 
the relative order of interweaving. Suppose, for 
instance, we determine that the back shall be a plain 
cloth, and the face a twill, say a four-end twill, two 
weft and two warp on the surface, and that we have 
two threads of face cloth to one of back, both in weft 
and warp, — the question will be, what should be the 
relative thickness of the face and back threads to produce 
a perfect cloth, and one in which the two are alike 
perfect. Now, although in both patterns weft and warp 
on the surface of their respective cloths are equal, yet 
the order of interweaving is not equal ; the twill will 
be a much looser fabric than the plain. Therefore, 
although the number of threads is as two to one, the 
diameters of the threads must not be in the same ratio, 
but we must take into account the order of interweaving, 
which in the twill to the plain will be as six is to eight, 
the number of ends of face to back, which is as two to 
one, and the diameter of the threads, which are to each 
other as the square root of their counts. We shall then 
make each cloth equally perfect; the "take up" of one 
will be equal to that of the other, and there will be no 
fear of one acting upon the other, and so affecting its 
appearance. Well, it maybe said, "in practice we cannot 
take all these things into account ; we are working upon 
certain counts of yarn, and we cannot alter exactly to 
suit any fancy system of calculation of this kind." The 
only answer is, " Then your fabrics cannot be perfect." 
Very frequently fabrics are made without any previous 
calculation of the relative thickness of the two sets of 
threads, and they come up so nearly perfect that they 
pass as such ; but in these cases the maker is guided 
entirely by previous knowledge of fabrics which have been 


made, and which are approximately perfect, and using this 
previous knowledge he may again arrive at something 
sufficiently near perfection ; but that is not quite 
enough, for he may have to make a number of 
experiments, waste time, labour, and material, and in 
the end his results are only approximately true, whereas 
a proper consideration of the condition will give him with 
certainty the proper counts of the material for one cloth 
to make it perfect in its relations to the other. 

So far we have been speaking on the assumption that 
the weft in each cloth is equal to its own warp, but 
frequently the warp and weft may be very different. 
In the face cloth this may be governed by the pattern, as 
was pointed out in dealing with single cloths, and in the 
back cloth it may be governed by questions of economy. 
Perhaps, in some cases, although the warp threads are as 
two to one in the two cloths respectively, the character 
of the patterns may render it necessary that the wefts 
may be in different proportions. Again, it may be that 
our back warp must be of cotton and the weft of woollen, 
then the weft would be much thicker than the warp \ 
yet we must not lose sight of the proper relation of that 
weft to the face weft, and to the order of interweaving, 
and so keep our two cloths as perfect as possible in their 
relations to each other. If any difference does exist 
between the two cloths, generally the back one should be 
the looser and softer. Serving as it does the purpose of 
a lining, we can afford to have a greater degree of loose- 
ness and softness in it than we can usually in the face, 
because the face has to be subjected to wear, to friction, 
and in a great measure to strain, which does not fall upon 
the back, and any liability to " cockling " is far less 
objectionable in the back cloth, which is never seen in 
wearing, than in the face cloth. However, this dif- 
ference must not be too great ; it must not be such 
as to be very perceptible either to the eye or the 
touch, and more especially in cloth such as woollen — 
a material in which this class of fabric is more 


made than in any other — where a process of milling 
or felting has to "be undergone. In some cases this 
increased softness of one cloth may be an advantage : 
it will give more elasticity to the cloth as a whole, 
and make the face cloth assert itself more, and con- 
sequently show to better advantage ; but it must not 
be carried too far, whatever degree of softness be 
given to it : it must not be much looser than the face, 
else the advantage gained by increased elasticity will 
be more than counteracted by excessive looseness and 
loss of wearing power. 

62. Three and Tour "Ply" Cloths.— In addition 
to double cloths pure and simple, there are many 
others known as "three ply," "four ply/' &c, imply- 
ing that the cloth is not merely a double but a 
three or four-fold cloth. It does not always follow 
though that a three or four ply cloth means that there 
are three or four distinct fabrics woven together, though 
that may be so ; there may be two perfect and complete 
cloths, and a filling between them which is not in itself, 
strictly speaking, a complete cloth. Or it may be 
that we combine two double-faced cloths, as, for in- 
stance, is the case with some very thick bulky cloths 
which are used for covering rollers and other purposes. 
A section of a cloth of this kind is shown in Fig. 73, 
where we have two double weft face cloths combined to 

make one. These 

/' A'W ' y^ \ '"XL/'y ^V 7 "^?- two cloths, if 

t / • y ^ W r%s ^y * / ^ V* \!X * y ^ \ * Xj i "P- perfectly bound 

Fi g 73 together, as they 

may easily be, 
make an immense thick bulky fabric ; in fact, when 
milled, if the proper thickness of threads be employed 
in their manufacture, they will present a section fully 
a quarter of an inch in thickness. This in common 
speech would be styled a four ply cloth, and may 
be so called with a certain amount of propriety, be- 
cause each of the cloths of which it is composed is a 


double-faced cloth; there are only two warps, but there 
are four wefts, and the manner in which these weft 
threads are interwoven with their respective warps allows 
the whole four to go into the space of one in an ordinary 
single cloth. This is one of the most simple applications 
of the three or four ply cloths, but it will help us to 
understand how the multiplication of cloths will enable us 
to produce fabrics of any bulk. Of course the principle of 
structure is exactly the same as in a pure double cloth. 
We have only to consider how many warps and wefts we 
have, and deal with each independently, as a weft or 
warp ; but in combining we must consider its relation to 
the other wefts or warps, or the other cloths, so that they 
can be bound together in the most perfect manner, and 
so that each cloth, although bound to another, is still a 
cloth in itself. 

It would be an easy matter to multiply illustrations, 
and perhaps by doing so we might add force to the one 
object we have in view — namely, urging the student to 
practise the consideration of all the individual threads 
which go to form a fabric, and to classify them, and con- 
sider them, in the first place at any rate, as being there 
for one specific purpose, and that they form part of a 
whole for that purpose only. 

So that we may be able to do this more completely, 
and to prepare for the consideration of other fabrics in a 
more thorough manner, we will examine some of the 
applications of double cloths as they are generally used 
and applied to fabrics which come under the almost 
daily notice of every one, whether engaged in the 
textile trades or not. If we can direct the attention 
of the student to objects which are daily before his 
eyes, but of which, perhaps, he takes little or no notice, 
we shall probably do more to educate him than by 
any amount of rules or definitions. He will examine 
and think for himself, he will begin to inquire the 
reason, and in many cases he will familiarise himself with 
the principle of the structure of fabrics, which in after- 


life he may apply to goods of a totally different cha- 
racter. It is not sufficient for the designer or manufac- 
turer of textile fabrics to know merely the structure of 
some particular class in which he is immediately engaged ; 
he should have a general, and, as far as possible, a par- 
ticular knowledge of the structure of other classes of 
fabrics, so that he may import new ideas into his own 
branch of industry ; and it is for this reason that we lay 
so much stress upon a complete knowledge of double 
cloths, because it will be found to be the keystone of a 
vast variety of fabrics to which, at first sight, perhaps, 
it has no relationship. 

63. Scottish or Kidderminster Carpets. — One of the 
most largely manufactured class of fabrics to which 
double cloth is applied, is what are known as Scottish 
or Kidderminster carpets, which consist of simply two 
separate cloths of the same texture but of different 
colours. These cloths exchange places so as to form figures 
or patterns. In many of these carpets great variety of 
colours is employed, and patterns of the most elaborate 
description produced, but a careful examination of them' 1 ' 
will show the student that each cloth remains to itself 
throughout. They exchange places to form patterns, 
but each weft weaves into its own warp. This is one of 
the simplest forms of application of double cloth to 
figuring. The fabrics may sometimes be made three or 
four ply, and the figures be of the most elaborate 
character, yet the application of the principle of double 
cloth is extremely simple. 

64. Quilts. — Another large class of fabrics made as 
double cloths, and one in which the most elaborate 
patterns are produced, although no colour is employed, 
the articles being white only, is what are generally 
known by the name " quilts,'' which includes cover- 
lets for beds, and also toilet covers and other such 
articles. These goods are usually of that class of double 
cloths which are equal in pattern but different in 

Chap. V.] QUILTS. 107 

Usually both cloths are quite plain, but the face is 
very much finer than the back, and in some of the 
commoner qualities, which are known as "mock," or 
imitation quilts, there is no back warp but only weft. 
The system or mode of producing figures in this class of 
fabrics is very different from that of other double cloths 
of which we have spoken, though it is in effect the same 
as that mentioned in connection with coating cloths in 
section 60. 

So as to deal in the most complete manner with this 
important class of fabrics, it will perhaps be as well to 
begin with an examination of the best qualities, and 
show the mode of producing patterns, then the other and 
inferior qualities will be more readily understood, and a 
more comprehensive knowledge obtained of the whole 

Quilts of the best quality may in one sense be called 
three ply cloths, though there are not three distinct 
and perfect cloths, but two cloths and a " wadding." 
That is, there are two distinct and perfect plain cloths, 
and a loose weft inserted between them, which not only 
gives bulk to the fabric but assists in producing that 
embossed ef- a h 

feet which is / ' i \y'A^y^\^/^\i/7\V^ 
peculiar to Uj — !-; 1 

this class of • yT\W/*TV« /T\Uj y^7\ • yfm 
fabric. The 
section (Fig. 

74) will explain most readily how the cloth is con- 
structed and the figure produced. There is a fine face 
cloth, represented by the thin lines and dots; a back 
cloth, represented by the thick lines and dots ; and the 
wadding, represented by the double straight lines. It will 
be seen that the face and back cloths are both perfectly 
plain, and the wadding pick passes clear between them. 
The manner in which the figure is produced is by binding 
the two cloths together, as shown at the points a and b, 
all-round the outline of the figure. By binding the 

Fig. 74. 


cloths together in this manner, with the wadding weft 
between them, the figure is raised, and so produces the 
embossed effect. This is easily accounted for, because at 
the point of binding the two cloths become one, and so 
compress the wadding weft between them, while in the 
body of the figure the two are quite loose from each 
other, and the wadding loose between them ; so that the 
latter pushes the cloths apart, and of course the larger 
and more loose the figures, the more this will take place. 
Fabrics produced upon this principle not only give wide 
scope for producing very elaborate designs, but they also 
give a very substantial useful fabric. From the fact of 
the cloths both being plain, the strength is all that could 
be desired, and the wadding gives warmth. In this case 
the back cloth, of course, is a lining only ; in fact, 
the whole structure is as if we had taken two separate 
cloths, laid one upon the other with a thick wadding 
material between them, and then with a needle stitched 
through the whole mass all round the outline of the pat- 
tern, so as to bind them firmly together. It is very ob- 
vious that the drawing of the two cloths together with 
the stitching, leaving the body of the figure without 
any stitching, will produce an embossed effect, and 
the thicker the wadding and the larger the figure, the 
more roundness we give to it. The structure of this 
cloth is just as if we had done so, the only difference 
being that instead of using the needle, the cloths are 
bound together in the process of weaving, and by the 
threads of which the cloth is composed. 

In many of the lighter fabrics of this class no wad- 
ding weft at all is used, but simply the two cloths, and 
more effect is given to the figure by the two cloths be- 
coming one where no figure is being formed. 

By this means pretty much the same effect is pro- 
duced as if wadding were used ; though of course the 
figures do not stand out quite so prominently as if 
wadded, nor is the cloth so stout and bulky ; yet the 
very flatness of the ground where the two cloths form 

Chap. V.] 


one gives more prominence to the figure than would be 
expected. A section of a cloth figured in this manner is 
oiven in Fig. 75. Even more prominence will be given 
to it by the weft of the back cloth being thick like wad- 
ding, and by allowing, at the back of the figure which is 
to be most raised, the back material to be quite loose ; 
the weft, which may be called wadding, lying loosely 
between the plain face cloth and the loose back warp, 
the latter having no weft interwoven with it at this point. 
In fact, the great majority of common toilet articles seem 
to be made after this latter method. Again, a similar 
effect may be produced by using backing weft only, and 

Fig. 75. 

letting it interweave into the ground, so as to form a 
thick cloth, and then pass loosely behind the figure in 
the same manner as the foregoing, only that there is no 
back warp. By this method the figures are not quite so 
clearly defined, and the embossed effect is not quite 
so good. However, by any of the three methods we 
have a ready means of producing most elaborate patterns 
without the use of colour, and the patterns may partake 
of any character ; they need not be of the stiff type, as 
stripes, checks, diamonds, &c., but they may be floral, or 
in fact of any style which the requirements of the cloth 
for the purpose to which it is to be applied, or the fancy 
of the designers may call forth. 

65. Matelasses. — Another class of fabric which has 
been largely used within the last few years may be 
said to belong to the same family as quilts, though the 
material of which it is made is different, and there 
is also more ornamentation on the face cloth. These 
fabrics are chiefly used for ladies' jacket or mantle cloths, 
and are known as " matelasses." The face cloth is 


generally silk or fine worsted ; the back cloth woollen and 
cotton, or all cotton, according to the quality of the 
goods. The principle of structure is precisely the same 
as in the best quality of quilts. The face and back are 
two separate cloths, and there is a wadding weft. The 
figure is produced by the binding of the two cloths to- 
gether in exactly the same manner as in quilts, but in 
addition to the figuring by binding, greater effect is given 
to it by varying the working of the face cloth by twilling 
and otherwise, so that the cloth is ornamented to the ut- 
most, and also gives a thick useful fabric. In this, of 
course, the pattern may be of any character, and more 
effect be given to floral designs, especially by the twilling, 
&c, on the face than can be given in quilts when the cloth 
is quite plain. This system of figuring is, of course, ap- 
plicable to many other fabrics ; we have merely selected 
these two for illustration, because more complete and per- 
fect representatives of their class than any of the others. 
66. Woven " Tucks," &c. — To enumerate all the ap- 
plications of double cloths would be a difficult task. We 
might point to the weaving of hose, which is made as a 
double cloth, and many others, but we should be occupy- 
ing space needlessly. However, we may refer to one or 
two other forms of application of a more or less novel 
kind ; for instance, the weaving of " tucks " for 
children's dress skirts, a section of which is shown in 
Fig. 76. To make these tucks, all the warp forms one 
solid fabric for the ground, then when the tuck is to 

be formed, every al- 
ternate warp end only 
is used until a suffi- 
cient length has been 
Fi s- 76 - woven. The warp is 

brought off two 
beams, and as soon as the tuck has been woven the 
warp of which it is formed is let forward, and the tuck 
pressed forward by the reed, or, what is equivalent, 
the ground cloth is let back up to the reed, until the 


edge of the tuck and the point where it commenced 
being formed are brought together, then the whole warp 
again begins to form one solid fabric, leaving the 
tuck as a protuberance on its surface. This operation is 
repeated at intervals, greater or less according to the 
size of tuck or their distances apart. 

67. Grooves in Cloth. — Fabrics are sometimes woven 
with grooves in them for various purposes, the grooves 
being formed by weaving two separate cloths for a given 
distance, then combining them so as to form one cloth only. 
The section would be similar to that shown in Fig. 75, 
except that the grooves would be straight across the 
piece. Then the woven "ladder-tapes' 5 for Venetian 
window-blinds are made upon the same principle, the 
narrow cross-pieces entering the body of each separate 
tape alternately. 

68. The Ornamentation and Uses of Double Cloth. 
— We have now gone pretty fully over the principles of 
double cloth making, and examined the advantages to 
be gained in increased weight of fabric — strength, and 
warmth— as well as the various methods of ornamen- 
tation which it places within our reach. We may 
ornament one of the cloths only, and use the second 
only as a lining ; we may bind the lining into the face 
cloth in such manner as to produce additional patterns ; 
or we may cause the two cloths to exchange places 
for the production of figures, and have by that means a 
solid coloured figure upon a ground of another colour. 
These are the chief features of double cloth, but in 
their application there is no limit to the varieties. 

A thorough knowledge, however, of the manufacture of 
double cloths in all the varieties of form or combination, is 
not only valuable as giving the power of producing a 
great variety of fabrics more or less heavy, but we can 
constantly apply it to fabrics which do not come strictly 
under the head of double cloths, but which are rather 
more for the purpose of ornamenting single cloths by the 
introduction of material which is used for figuring only, 


and which form more or less of a double cloth only at 
the point where the figuring comes in. 

Before leaving this subject we might briefly point 
out generally the classes of fabric to which the various 
classes of double cloth weaving are most applied. 
In the first place, there are those which consist of one 
warp and two wefts, used chiefly for woollen goods, such 
as union shawls, mantle cloths, rugs, coating cloths, and 
other heavy fabrics. Secondly, there are those which 
consist of two warps and one weft : applied to silks, 
ribbons, a few coating cloths, but mostly to fine material 
where a great many threads per inch in the warp can be 
used without difficulty. And thirdly, there are those 
which are two separate cloths : applied to heavy shawls, 
carpets, quilts, heavy coating cloths, and heavy goods 
generally, whether of an extreme fancy character or 
where plain texture is required. 



69. Forming Patterns upon the Fabric. — We have 
in the previous chapters dealt chiefly with the structure 
of the fabrics and the consideration of ornamenting in 
the structure, with the view of rather adding to than de- 
tracting from its usefulness. Of course, as we pointed 
out in the first chapter, we must at all times have the 
application of the fabric before us ; yet we may deter- 
mine the general structure first, and then the question of 
ornamentation separately. As we have dealt with the 
question up to this point, we have kept the two strictly 
together. We may now begin to consider the question 
of ornamentation from a somewhat different standpoint. 
We have to deal with pattern of a more elaborate 
character and its application to fabric., and make 


structure of cloth subservient to design rather than 
design subservient to structure, at least so far as the 
question of usefulness goes. Of course, we can never 
afford to ignore the latter, but, as we have considered 
it so very fully, we may now make it, perhaps, more of a 
secondary question. 

So far we have only discussed the question of 
figuring on fabrics in a general way, without entering 
into the question of arrangement of figured patterns. 
The designs with which we have dealt, except in 
double cloths, have been figures of a simple des- 
cription, commonly designated twills, the one chief 
characteristic being that they are continuous and un- 
broken all over the fabric. The number of threads 
occupied by one complete pattern is very small, and 
although, as we have shown, there may be a great 
number of patterns produced, either of twills or having 
twills for their base, yet there is little room left for 
the play of imagination, at any rate as compared with 
what may be exercised when dealing with designs of 
a floral character or patterns occupying a larger area. 
Again, the patterns with which we have dealt in detail 
— except the references made in the last chapter to 
figuring with double cloths — being such as occupy only 
a small number of threads, are capable of being woven 
in the loom with healds ; but as the area of patterns so 
woven is necessarily limited, we must resort to the 
Jacquard machine to enable us to produce larger and 
more complicated patterns, or, in other words, to give us 
command over a greater number of threads, so that we 
may vary their order of working in a greater degree, and 
not have the repetition of the pattern occurring so 

In all the patterns which we have discussed up to 
now, where we have formed a pattern by interweaving 
the warp and weft threads in varied order, it has been 
formed by both sets of threads in a similar degree. 
We have had no fixed or definite ground fabric with 


a figure upon it. The figure has covered the whole ; 
in fact, we may be said to have been designing fabrics. 
There has been only ornamentation on a small scale in 
the structure. We must now determine the structure 
of the fabric first, or what is technically termed the 
ground pattern, and then work our design upon it. For 
forming the figure upon the surface of the cloth, we may 
use either the material which composes the body of the 
fabric or we may introduce extra material. Suppose we 
are weaving an ordinary plain cloth, and we wish to 
ornament it by the introduction of a figure, we may 
either introduce additional warp or weft to make the 
figure, without in any way interfering with the plain 
fabric, or we may let the ground warp and weft, as that 
which forms the fabric is termed, cease to interweave 
with each other, and simply lie loosely one above the 
other at intervals regular or irregular according to the 
arrangement of the figure we desire to produce. Some- 
times we may have the weft thrown to the surface, 
sometimes the warp, according to the material of which 
each is made ; or we may bring up portions of each for the 
purpose of producing some special effect, as, for instance, 
if warp and weft are of different colours. In many 
cases also we not only make figures with the material of 
which the ground or body of the fabric is composed, but 
we also introduce along with it some extra material 
either in the warp or weft, or both. 

We must examine into this subject very closely, so 
that we may see clearly not only how the figure is made, 
but the arrangement of designs, and the probable effect 

upon the fabric of designs of different 

■"■"■"■"■a characters when the pattern is formed by 

■"■■■■■■■n the ground material. 

■□■□■□SSS3 70. Figures Formed by the Ground 

Fig. 77. Material.— Let us take Fig. 77 as a 

plan of a small figure, formed by the 
ground weft upon a plain cloth, and Fig. 78 as a section 
of the same. The general body of the cloth is per- 


fectly plain, the warp and weft passing over and under 
each other alternately, but the figure is formed simply 
by their ceasing to interweave, each set of threads 
being quite free from the other. When figures are so 
made the quality of the cloth must be in some degree 
affected; but this will vary according to the amount 
of figuring introduced, the size of the separate figures, 
and their distances apart. We say that plain cloth 
is the most firm in texture of all ordinary fabrics, but 
if we intermix with the plain a quantity of figuring 
where the warp and weft are both quite loose, we make 
the fabric loose in texture exactly in the degree in which 
we figure it. Generally speaking, the amount of figure 
introduced is not so much as to affect the fabric detri- 

Fig. 78. 

mentally, but this, of course, must be carefully watched 
by the designer of the pattern ; and if his cloth would 
be deteriorated by the introduction of a certain amount 
of figure, then he must alter it by the use either of a 
greater number of threads per inch, or of a thicker 
yarn. The consideration of the structure of the fabric, 
as affected in this way, is not the only or even the most 
important one in designing figured goods, but the 
arrangement and distribution of the figure also require 
a proper amount of attention. If the design be floral 
it will be necessary to distribute the weight of figuring 
equally, not alone for the purpose of pleasing the eye, 
but so that the fabric shall not be more loose at one 
part than another. It must always be borne in mind by 
the designer of fabrics of this type that large figures 
or figures set closely together will give looseness and 
extreme softness to the cloth. And by having a large 
quantity of loose weft or warp thrown to the surface the 
wearing qualities of the fabric are very much affected; in 


fact, where the figure is formed there is no cloth — cloth 
has ceased to be formed, it is simply loose warp and weft, 
and it does not require an expert to know that this must 
not be carried too far. In a great portion of the fabrics 
figured upon this principle the designs are not strictly 
floral. Perhaps floral objects may form the basis of 
the design, but they are set at regular intervals over 
the surface, not arranged as a continuous pattern, not 
a design, perhaps, in the general acceptation of the word, 
but simply an object or number of objects scattered at 
regular intervals and in definite order over the surface. 

Take Fig. 79 as an example. We have here the same 
object as we used in Fig. 77, but a number of them are 
distributed. So as to arrive at a definite understanding 

of the order of arrangement we 

■DiDiSSSHDiiaHiSS must examine each spot or object 
* ■■■ B ]HnSn 1 B52S»nSn * and its relation to each weft nick 

BBBSBSSSSKBSSBg c and warp end of the pattern/ It 
' ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ wil1 be noticed that the spots aa 

SnanSSSSinSaSSSS eacn commence on the same pick, 

6 Bsass5SBB5ysas:5 6 ^ *° d ° hh ^ d ™> &., and 

pSiBn'i-iiSSSv 1 "^ further, that a and c are upon 

° ■aBaSaSSBaSSSaS" " tne sam e warp ends, and so are 
Fig. 79. b and d, so that a is a repetition 

of a in the direction of the weft, 
and c is a repetition of a in the direction of the 
warp ; and in like manner b and d are repetitions 
of b. Consequently a and b constitute the complete 
pattern, the rest being simply repetitions of these 
two. This mode of arranging the spots is usually 
spoken of as being "two spots set alternately,' ' 
which simply means that there are only two spots 
in the complete pattern, which are arranged so that 
they occur alternately in the order of weaving. This 
is the simplest and easiest mode of arranging the dis- 
tribution of spot figures over the surface of the fabric, 
and may be applied to figures of any size or form, but it 
possesses what is generally considered a disadvantage in 


woven fabrics, as far as appearances go, but which is much 
Greater so far as the structure of the cloth is concerned. 
In the pattern before us, if we glance along the centre of 
the figure we see the weft passing clear over five warp 
threads, and interweaving only with three. Exactly 
the same occurs with the warp threads through the 
centre. Again, if we look along the line where one 
figure is just ending and the next beginning, we shall see 
that the weft passes under and over every alternate warp 
thread. The same also occurs with the warp thread 
interweaving with the weft at the corresponding position. 
Such a variation in the order of weaving of the various* 
threads of which the fabric is composed must produce 
irregularities in its texture, which are objectionable, 
for they not only detract very much from its appearance 
but also from its usefulness, because of the different 
degrees of tension thrown upon the threads. In a figure 
so small as this it might not be serious, but in a large 
one it certainly would, and the small pattern is used here 
only for the purpose of illustration. 

Then, if the arrangement of spots alternately in this 
manner is objectionable, as it evidently must be in some 
cases at least, we must adopt some other mode which 
will obviate the difficulty. Now, it is very clear that 
whatever system of arrangement we use, there must 
be regularity : the spots must be 

regular distances apart, and equally £535888885858525 
distributed Fio- 80 is one of the BBDBQBBBDBnBQaaB 


most perfect arrangements of its 8535858588! 188585 
kind. Here we have the same £588888585858585 

spots ; they are equal distances 85S5b535S5858bbb 
apart, equally distributed, and the S525S5SBBBS5S5S5 
order of interweaving of each re- 8BBB8585B5838*8j 
spective end and pick is also equal. 85B53585S5SBBb35 
The appearance of the fabric, so Fig. 80. 

far as size and distance apart of 

the spots are concerned, would be exactly the same as 
that of Fig. 79, but the cloth will be more perfectly 


constructed, more pleasing to the eye — inasmuch as the 
figures do not run in the same straight lines — and 
more serviceable, because of the equality in the tension 
of the threads by reason of their interweaving regularly 
and equally throughout. This arrangement is extremely 
simple, being upon the basis of what is commonly known 
as an eight-end satin. In some cases other orders of 
satin may be adopted, doubtless for a good and sufficient 
reason. We must, of course, calculate the area we 
propose to give to the figure, and find the number 
of ends and picks it will require to occupy, and if 
bhat number happens to be one which is not a mea- 
sure of the number of hooks contained in our Jacquard 
machine, which simply means the total number of 
threads at our disposal for figuring purposes, then we 
must alter it and adopt five, six, eight, or ten, as the 
case may require. Again, perhaps the form of the figure 
is such that an arrangement of eight spots in satin 
order would give them the appearance of irregularity ; 
if so, we must adopt some other system which is better 
suited to it. For instance, an elongated figure may 
frequently be better arranged with five or ten spots than 
eight, because the order of distribution is not quite so 
regular to the eye ; and this apparent irregularity may 
be neutralised by the placing of the elongated figures, 
and thus present a much more regular appearance. On 
the other hand, as a matter of course, if the spot is regular 
in shape, no method of arrangement can be better than 
an eight-end satin. Although the example we have 
taken for our illustration is a figure of a very stiff 
character, and one which perhaps exaggerates the 
difficulty, yet the rule is more or less applicable to figures 
of every description, whether they be stiff or free in 
their outline. No doubt the difficulty is greatest in 
figures which vary so much in the length of "float" 
— that is, in the number of ends over which the weft 
passes without interweaving. If they are pretty equal in 
this respect, then the only reason for abandoning the alter- 


nate order of arrangement is to prevent the figures from 
running in straight lines across or the length of the piece. 

So far we have confined ourselves to figures upon 
a plain cloth, and formed with the material of which the 
fabric is composed ; but we are not necessarily confined 
to plain cloth ; we may figure with equal facility upon 
twilled or satin cloth. In fact, we determine the fabric 
first, and then figure upon it ; and the figure must be 
made subservient to the structure of the cloth, not the 
cloth to the figure. What we mean is, that we determine 
the weight, quality, and texture of our cloth, according 
to the purposes to which it is to be applied, and then 
proceed to ornament it. 

In ornamenting twilled or satin fabrics, there is 
less risk of affecting the general character of the 
cloth than in plain cloth, because the looseness of the 
figure more nearly accords with the nature of it, the 
looseness of the interweaving of the ground of the fabric 
approximating more closely to the figure ; and as there 
is necessarily more material employed, a slightly 
increased looseness is not so detrimental. Further, 
in cloths which have not a plain ground we employ 
figures with more freedom of outline. In plain cloths 
we are bound to consider the order of interweaving, and 
as this happens at every alternate end, our outline must 
necessarily be more or less stiff; whereas in a satin, 
for instance, the' interweaving would be only at every 
fifth end, and we can, therefore, change from weft to 
warp, or vice versa, with more freedom, and consequently 
relieve the outline from stiffness. This is also assisted 
by the increased quantity of material employed. 

One feature of the arrangement of spot figures 
must not be overlooked, whether we arrange them 
alternately, or in satin, or any given order. If the form 
of the figure is such that more threads are used in 
one direction than the other, whether in the warp or 
weft, by one spot, whatever number of spots are 
employed, the whole must occupy a space proportionate 


to that occupied by one. Suppose, for instance, that one 
spot occupies thirty ends, and only sixteen picks, and we 
are employing five, eight, or ten spots, the number of 
ends and picks which the whole number of figures 
occupies must be proportionate to those occupied by one 
spot. It would be absurd to put eight, say, of such spots 
upon a square space; at some points, if they were not 
actually touching each other, they would come very near, 
while at others they would be very wide apart. 

In many instances, when we figure with the ground 
weft or warp, or even with both, upon a plain cloth, the 
figure is not allowed to be quite loose, but is twilled, or 
the warp and weft are bound together in satin order ; 
and even upon other than plain fabrics this may be done. 
The first object in doing this is to give firmness to the 
cloth, and sometimes also effect to the pattern. If the 
spots be large ones, the introduction of twilling will give 
more effect, more light and shade, as it were, to the 
pattern, and at the same time the cloth will be more 
useful for wearing purposes, and there will be less loose 
material on the surface. 

Spot figures of the type of which we have been 
speaking are amongst the simplest and easiest patterns 
to produce. They require simple, methodical treatment 
only. We take any small object, either from nature or 
fancy, and distribute it in regular order and with 
mathematical precision over the surface, so that the 
designer's skill — from an art point of view — is called 
forth chiefly in the selection of his object. He will have 
no difficulty in finding plenty to select from. If he 
wishes to have large figures he has a great variety of 
flowers, leaves, &c, from which to select, which readily 
admit of variation, and which he may conventionalise to 
an unlimited extent. If only small objects are required^ 
the number to choose from is even greater. The petals 
of flowers, grains of corn, portions of leaves, and other 
objects in nature, afford him unlimited scope. 

In many cases small objects which are stiff in outline 

Chap. VI.] 



are arranged in such order as to form a continuous 
pattern, like that shown in Fig. 81, which may be 
compared to a series of intersecting diagonals, made by 
objects each of the same size and shape. In patterns 
of this type effect is frequently given by variety of 
twilling, and at the 
same time the balance 
of pattern or loose- 
ness of weaving is 
regulated by it. In 
this design, for in- 
stance, the thick bars 
where the weft is laid, 
loosely on the top of 
the fabric are coinci- 
dent with the plain 
cloth, whilst at the 
point where there is 
little or no plain the 
figure is twilled, thus 
giving a balance or 
equality of texture. 

In the arrangement of these patterns too much 
attention cannot be paid to such little matters, for 
the same reason that in the small set spots we 
distribute them in satin or some other order which will 
equalise the interweaving. If our pattern will not admit 
of such orders of distribution, we must take other means 
of equalising the texture. 

71. Tloral Designs formed by the Ground Weft. 
— In making floral designs, all the same conditions must 
be observed as in the patterns of which we have just 
, been speaking. We must take care that our pattern 
does not run in too straight lines either with the weft or 
warp. It may be permitted to run diagonally, be- 
cause that would not affect the relative tension of the 
threads. Any inequalities may be neutralised by vary- 
ing the twilling, and by the same means variety given 

Fig. 811 


to the pattern, and to some extent the absence of variety 
of colour supplied. 

In some cases, where the floral design is of a scroll 
character trailing over the surface, after the fashion of 
climbing plants, with leading or prominent objects occurring 
at intervals, it is well to arrange these first, so as to 
ensure their equal distribution. They may be placed 
in satin, or some other more or less regular order, and 
the general body filled up afterwards, and in such a 
manner as to relieve the stiff monotony of the regular 
order of arrangement. If this is done judiciously, not 
only will it assist beginners in their first arrangement 
of original designs, but it keeps before their eyes 
constantly the necessity of this regular order of dis- 
tribution ; and a thorough conviction of the necessity of 
this, so as to keep the fabric regular, is one of the surest 
guarantees of success to the designer of textile fabrics. 

72. Figured Stripes. — In many cases figures are made 
to run in regular stripes the whole length of the cloth ; 
that is, a stripe is produced upon the fabric by figuring 
alone. It may be that the stripe is a floral pattern, and 
the ground is either plain or twilled, or has small spot 
figures distributed over it. In such patterns care must 
be taken as to the relative tension of the warp threads of 
the stripe and ground fabric, or, if there be a great 
difference, the warps for each respectively must come 
from different warp beams, because it would require so 
much more length of warp to make a given length of 
cloth in one case than the other ; and if they both come 
off the same beam, the same length of each being given 
off, one would of necessity be much tighter and 
straighter than the other. Of course the necessity for 
two beams would only arise when the difference in the 
orders of working made a very perceptible difference 
in the tension of the warp. Sometimes the figure of the 
stripe may be of the same character as the ground, but 
differing from it either in some of the forms employed, 
or in the arrangement or distribution of the objects, and 


the difference in the orders of working might be so 
slight that there would be no real difference in the 
tension, and consequently no need for the employment 
of two warp beams. 

73. Stripes which differ in Texture and Quality 
from the Ground. — We have already referred to making 
stripes finer than the ground, or what is called " crammed 
stripes," but we spoke of them merely as plain stripes, 
or simply twilled. The same class of stripe is also 
largely used for figured goods. The ground of the fabric 
may be either plain or twilled, or may have spot figures 
over it — the last two are the most common — and the stripe 
may be twilled or satin, and the figure running upon it. 

This is by far the most effective method of making 
stripes, because not only does the figure give character to 
it, but its very closeness and compactness distinctly 
mark it, and separate it from the ground. Again, 
stripes of this description are frequently a different 
material from the ground, as well as a different colour 
or shade of the same colour. When we say that 
these stripes are usually finer than the ground, we say 
so in a very broad sense, or perhaps it will be better 
to qualify it, and say that it is either much finer or there 
is a greater quantity of material in a given space. For 
instance, if the stripe be twilled, we may either have 
more threads per inch than in the ground, or an equal 
number of a thicker thread. The latter possesses the 
advantage of being cheaper, but the former that of 
superior appearance. If the stripe be a satin, we cannot 
so readily resort to the thicker material only, as the 
nature of the pattern requires a greater number of 
threads to make it " cover " properly. In either case 
there must be an increased quantity of material, whether 
there be actually increased weight or not. If we simply 
use thicker threads there will be increased weight, but if 
we use more threads of a finer count the increase of 
weight accompanying the number of threads is neutralised 
by their fineness in a greater or less degree. 


In making figured stripes, the same rule must be ob- 
served as in the combination of any two patterns in any 
form — namely, that either the number of picks occupied 
by the ground pattern, or whichever is smaller, must be 
a measure of that occupied by the stripe or larger pat- 
tern, or they must be continued to a point where the two 
meet at the same time. In the majority of instances, 
the stripe will occupy the greater number of picks, be- 
cause that is usually the fancy portion of the fabric, the 
ornamental part put on as a decoration to it. But this is 
not the universal rule ; sometimes the ground may be 
figured, and the stripe a plain twill or satin introduced 
to give relief to the ground. This may be determined 
variously by the caprices of fashion, or the uses to which 
the article is to be applied. An example of each kind 
is given in the coloured plate I. 

When the figuring occurs on the stripe, the best effect 
is generally obtained by having the ground darker than 
the stripe and solid in colour; that is, the weft and the 
warp of the ground both alike in colour, whether they are 
in the material or not, and the warp of the stripe either a 
lighter colour, or a somewhat lighter shade or tint of the 
same colour. By this means the figure on the stripe will 
be darker than the stripe itself, and will therefore give 
more effect to it. Where it is a plain stripe upon a 
figured ground the same rule will apply to some extent, 
but more liberty may be taken. A light figure upon a 
dark stripe will give a rather "seedy" appearance, it will 
be wanting in force or character, but a dark solid stripe 
upon a light figured ground will not be deficient in the 
same degree. Or even if the plain stripe be of the same 
colour as the ground, it will be more pleasing than a 
figured stripe upon a plain ground of the same colour. 
In the first case the stripe will break, and give relief to 
the figure, but the plain ground cannot give relief to the 
figured stripe to the same extent. Of course this will 
somewhat depend upon the relative quantities of stripe 
and figure; if they are equal, or nearly equal, the 

Plate I. 


condition will not be exactly the same as if the ground 
be three or four times as broad as the stripe. The 
designer must be guided by this in his use or non-use of 
different depths of colour, as well as by other circum- 
stances accompanying it. 

74. Figures running over both Stripe and Ground. 
— Although we have been speaking of figuring the 
ground and stripe separately, we are not, necessarily, 
bound to confine ourselves strictly to that. Very 
excellent effects are produced by letting the figure run 
over both stripe and ground; in fact, arranging the 
pattern as though the stripe had no existence. This 
may be done whether the stripe be finer than the ground 
or not, though in most cases it has most effect when stripe 
and ground are equal in all respects except colour ; as, 
for instance, if the fabric is a fine satin throughout. 
Again, very pleasing effects may be produced by letting 
the figure run over the ground in sprays, and have the 
termination of its branches in the stripe ; and this may 
be done either when ground and stripe are equal or 
otherwise. Probably in such cases the best effect is 
produced when the stripe is finer than the ground, as it 
will give a more striking contrast to the terminals of the 
sprays. If the object of running the figure over ground 
and stripe alike is to break up the stripe a little, and make 
it lose some of the harsh straight outline which usually 
distinguishes stripes, it will be better to let the stripe and 
the figure occupy different numbers of ends, or, in other 
words, occupy different spaces. Suppose, for instance, 
that the stripe is repeated every three inches and the 
figure every four inches, then the stripe will not be 
broken by the corresponding part of the figure until it 
has been repeated four times and the figure three times, 
so that it is relieved considerably of the monotonous 
repetition which would present itself if the stripe were 
broken all across the piece at the same point. This, of 
course, may or may not be an advantage, but in most 
cases it is a most decided one, because the harsh outline 


and the individuality of the stripe are more completely 
and effectively broken up. We give examples in Plate II. 
of two figured stripes, one of which has the figure 
running indiscriminately over the surface, and the other 
having the terminals of the sprays in the stripe. Some- 
times small stripes are made running in thin, straight, 
lines, and broken either with figures similar to those 
shown in Plate II., or with small spot figures arranged so 
that they fall across the stripes and break the lines. 
Such spots are best arranged in satin order, so that they 
don't break in straight lines across the piece. In fact, 
the same reasons prevail as for the spiral scroll and other 
similar figures previously mentioned to prevent the too 
frequent repetition of the break in the stripe from being 
in the same straight line. 

75. Figured Diagonals. — In addition to figured 
stripes there is another class of figures nearly akin to 
them — namely, figured diagonals, or stripes arranged 
diagonally across the fabric. These, of necessity, differ 
from stripes running the length of the piece, not only in 
appearance but in the order of arrangement ; and 
while in figured stripes we may have the stripe different 
in both colour and fineness from the ground, we cannot 
have it so in n diagonal patterns, from the fact that the 
diagonal stripe must be made of the same warp or weft 
as the ground. We might introduce extra material for 
producing the diagonal stripe, but as we shall show when 
dealing with the question of figuring with extra material, 
we should add to the weight of the cloth considerably ; 
and at present we wish to deal with figures formed by 
the material composing the ground cloth only. It may 
be said that in dealing with stripes of a different colour 
from the ground, and, perhaps, in different material also, 
we are ornamenting with extra material. That is 
quite true, but it is not figuring with extra material in 
the general acceptation of the term. When we are 
making that stripe, it forms the whole fabric at that 
particular place ; there is no ground cloth under it ; 

Plate II 


while what we usually mean by using extra material is 
that the ground cloth runs throughout, and the extra 
material figures upon it, and does not enter into the body 
of the fabric, except to form figure. 

Then in figured diagonal patterns we are dependent 
upon form or variety of lines to produce variety of pat- 
terns \ unless we do introduce extra material we cannot 
resort to variety of colour to assist us. But even when 
confined to single colours, we may produce great variety 
of patterns. In the first place, our pattern may consist 
more or less of scroll or sprays, running continuously 
diagonally, yet the variety of forms may break the 
rigid straightness of the line, or we may use straight 
lines with floral or other spots introduced at intervals 
between the lines. Again, we may use the straight lines 
combined with the scroll, and the scroll may be either 
confined strictly between the lines, or, like the stripes, 
it may break through it at intervals, regular or irregular. 
In fact, all that has been said of producing figured stripes 
so far as the design itself is concerned, apart from the 
use of colour and varying degrees of fineness, applies 
equally to figured diagonals. One remark which was 
made in a previous chapter in reference to small diagonals 
with spots running between them, also applies here — 
namely, that the number of ends occupied by the figure 
counted in a diagonal direction, must be a measure of the 
number occupied by the whole diagonal, or the pattern 
must be repeated to a number of which each is a measure. 
It is even more important that this rule should be borne 
in mind in commencing to make a large figured diagonal 
than in a small one, because any discrepancy between 
the number occupied by the diagonal and the figure 
respectively would lead to the necessity of carrying the 
design out to an immense length, and the increased 
number of ends employed makes it so much easier to 
arrange before the design is commenced that the two 
numbers shall coincide than is the case in smaller 
patterns. We might say that a little carelessness or 


ignorance in the application of this rule will lead to a 
great waste both of labour and material which might 
quite easily be saved. 

76. Combination of Figured Stripes and Diagonals. 
— Not only may we make figured stripes and diagonals, 
but we may also combine them, running figured diagonals 
between the stripes. In the arrangement of such patterns 
the rule of determining the extent of the design will 
apply as to stripes, but it need not apply as to diagonals. 
The diagonal must be repeated so as to show no break 
throughout the length of the piece, but it is not neces- 
sary that it should be a true diagonal across the piece. 
It is broken up, as it were, into long narrow strips con- 
tained between two parallel lines ; then it must be per- 
fect as between these parallels, but it need not be arranged 
so that it would be a perfect diagonal if these parallel 
lines or stripes were removed. Perhaps if the stripe 
were a very narrow one it would have a much better 
appearance if it were so arranged, but if the stripe be 
sufficiently broad to prevent the eye detecting any break 
in the continuity of the diagonal, it would not matter 
whether a break occurred or not. True, the effect would, 
in most instances, be more pleasing could any break — 
whether actually visible or not — be prevented ; but what 
we mean by calling attention to this is, that if any 
extension of the design were necessary to prevent this 
break, provided no actual fault would be visible, it 
would be more economical to allow the break to take 
place, because it would, in many cases, require — in order 
to avoid it — an extension of the Jacquard power, and 
probably also a greater number of picks in the pattern, 
which would mean the use of a greater number of Jac- 
quard cards, and consequently entail more labour and 
expense in producing the design in the fabric ; and when- 
ever labour and expense can be saved it is certainly 
advisable to do so. 

77. Figured Checks. — In addition to stripes and 
diagonals formed by figures, we may also make checks or 


stripes crossing each other at right angles. These may 
be classed generally under three heads : — First, when a 
figured check encloses a plain, square space \ second, 
when a plain check encloses a square figured space (in 
both cases the check lines being equal in texture and 
quality to the space enclosed) ; and third, when the 
check lines are different in quality and texture to the 
space enclosed. 

In arranging designs for the first of these care must 
be taken that the figures running across the piece and 
those running the length of the piece join perfectly to 
each other. The two portions of the pattern must not 
have the appearance of having been made at different 
times, or by different hands, and put together by chance 
They must combine to form one complete whole. They 
must be part and parcel of the same idea, otherwise 
there will be an incongruity about the pattern which will 
be most offensive to the eye. Patterns of this kind in 
the hands of a beginner are, perhaps, the most difficult 
to manage ; the point of junction is often to him a 
source of much trouble. It may not, perhaps, be such a 
very difficult matter when making a design upon plain 
paper, but when he is applying it to the fabric, where he 
has to follow the warp and weft thread by thread, he 
often finds considerable difficulty. This difficulty is by 
far the greatest if the pattern has any stiff, rigid lines. 
These must fall in and join to each other perfectly. If 
the slightest break occur, it will be immediately visible. 
If the pattern run in flowing, graceful lines, the diffi- 
culty will be lessened, because a slight deviation will 
not be in any way detrimental, though it must never 
be attempted with stiff lines. The length of the lines 
must be measured with the most perfect accuracy, 
and the chief points carefully marked out upon the de- 
sign-paper, so that nothing which will affect or be likely to 
affect their joining properly will be left to chance. We 
have thought it well to give this warning most explicitly, 
knowing the liability of the beginner to fall into error, 


which would result in spoiling his whole pattern, and 
compel him to begin the task again. 

In the second class, where a figure is surrounded by a 
plain check, there is no necessity for this caution. 
Each square of figure is complete in itself, and, even 
more than in the striped diagonal, no regard need be 
paid to its continuity. It may be treated as we might 
treat a tile, or any square article with a figure in its 
centre and a border surrounding it. This border will 
prevent effectively the adjoining square from interfering 
with it. In fact, the different squares need not be all 
alike ; different patterns may be alternated, and as much 
variety as the extent of figuring surface will permit may 
be introduced. There is no difficulty in arranging designs 
of this kind for the fabric. 

In the third class, where the check surrounding the 
figure is of a different quality from the ground, what has 
been said of the second class applies exactly so far as 
regards the figure, but in respect to the check itself some 
knowledge of the structure of fabrics is required. We 
may say that it is a combination of two stripes placed at 
right angles to each other, both of which are finer than 
the ground fabric which they surround or upon which 
they are placed. Now, whatever may be the texture and 
degree of fineness of the longitudinal stripe, that of the 
transverse stripe should be exactly similar. If these 
two stripes or sets of stripes be much heavier or more com- 
pact in their structure than the ground cloth, they will 
exert a power over it, and cause it to " cockle " or curl. 
On the other hand, if the ground be firmer in texture 
than the stripe, it will exert a similar power over the 

Erom the very fact that the stripes are finer, contain- 
ing a greater number of threads per inch than the 
ground, they must be more loosely interwoven, so as to 
allow of this increased quantity of material being put in. 

This being so, if the relative quantities or thick- 
ness of the materials of the ground and checking be 

Chap. VI.] DIAPER. 131 

not properly proportioned to the order of interweav- 
ing of each respectively, trouble must of necessity ensue. 
Therefore, too much care and attention cannot be paid to 
the subject before actually attempting to make the 

78. Diaper. — In all the patterns with which we have 
been dealing we have assumed that the figure is formed by 
the warp and weft ceasing to interweave with each other, 
or if not entirely ceasing, interweaving only very slightly 
— just sufficient to hold them together and prevent 
them from appearing as so much loose material, or 
to give some special effect to the design. We may now 
turn our attention to a class of figuring in which 
throughout, both in figure and ground, they are equally 
firm in texture. Such patterns are variously known as 
"diaper" and "damask." The former is not so much 
used as it once was, the latter, which permits of much 
greater variety of form in the figures, having, since the 
great development of the Jacquard machine, almost 
entirely superseded it. However, both are alike in the 
principle of structure of the fabric, and it is probable 
that diaper preceded and was the original of damask, 
which, with improved machinery, 

has developed into a more perfect SnnaSnDnSBB52BB5 
and pleasing class of designs. H5SBB52B3SSBB3SB 

In Fig. 82 we have a plan of SBBSSBBRSSB^SBS 
a diaper pattern of the simplest gggBngSaBaSSBaBB 
kind, which will convey most B3SBSBS25B3SHSS2B 
readily an idea of the principle SBSSSBBS2BB8SBSS 
upon which the fabric is con- BaSBBSSBanSHnnSa 
structed. On the first eight ends !5gSS""g°°"™" 

and picks it will be seen that the Fig. 82. 

weft comes to the surface, forming 
a four-end twill, and for the next eight ends exactly the 
reverse taking place. There is still a four-end twill 
formed, but running in the opposite direction, and with 
the warp brought to the surface. For the next eight 
picks the conditions are reversed, the ends which went 


to the back at first now coming to the face, and those 
which were on the face going to the back, and the twills 
turning in the opposite direction at the same time. 
Throughout the whole system of diaper weaving this one 
principle is followed. The figures are formed by the 
warp and weft changing places from back to face and 
vice versa. • In whatever direction the twill runs when 
the weft is on the surface, it runs in a contrary direction 
when the warp is on the surface ; consequently both sides 
of the fabric are alike in pattern, and, what is quite as 
important, the fabric is equally firm in texture through- 
out. There is no loose material on face or back. 

The pattern we have given in Fig. 82 would form a 

simple chequer pattern, but generally they are of a more 

elaborate character than this. The intervals of changing 

may be varied to any extent, and not only simple 

chequer patterns produced, but others which may almost 

be called figured goods. In all true diapers the chief 

characteristic of the pattern is that it runs in squares ; 

the whole design is simply the changing of the order of 

working, as shown in Fig. 82, in various-sized squares or 

parallelograms. Fig. 83 is a plan of one in which there 

is greater variety than in Fig. 82. 

□□□nnDDDMDDM j t i s not carried out to the full extent, 

nor shows the twilling, but is simply 

made upon paper to explain the pat- 

iJBnBSna tern * -^ n arran g m g designs for dia- 
jjgg pers the plan adopted in Fig. 83 is a 


I5HH ver y general one — at least, when 
woven as diapers formerly were, with 
Pig# 83# healds. The warp is divided into 

divisions of four or more ends, ac- 
cording to the pattern ; each of these divisions is repre- 
sented by one of the spaces on the paper, and all the 
divisions which correspond in their order of working 
have their warp threads drawn through the same set of 
healds, so there are as many divisions of healds as there 
are divisions of the pattern which are different from 

Chap. VI.] DAMASKS. 133 

each other in their order of working. So that, as will 
readily be seen, very large patterns may be produced 
with a very small number of healds \ and if each of 
the spaces given on the paper represent a division 
of four ends, the whole pattern will be four times the 
size of that represented. Of course, what is said of ends 
applies also to picks. 

There are many small patterns in both linen and 
cotton goods which are known as diapers but are not 
in reality such. They are simply small figures, many 
of them made on the principle we have before described 
— namely, a loose weft or warp figure upon a plain or 
other ground. 

It may seem that if diapers are, as shown here, a 
mere combination of twills for the purpose of producing 
patterns, that the subject should have been treated under 
the head of figuring with twills in a previous chapter. 
Strictly speaking, that is so ; because they are not only 
patterns which were always produced with healds in the 
days when they were most largely used, but the character 
of the pattern altogether would place it in the category 
of those with which we have already dealt. Our sole 
object in reserving it for this chapter has been to use it 
as an introduction to damask. In speaking of diaper 
patterns we have referred to them as being regular twills 
reversed to form patterns. This is a perfectly accurate 
description of the great majority of diapers, but some- 
times instead of a regular twill a satin would be substi- 
tuted, the pattern still being arranged in straight lines, 
squares, or parallelograms. 

79. Damasks. — The structure of damask is precisely 
the same in principle as that of diaper. The figures are 
not arranged in straight lines or squares, but are gene- 
rally more or less of a floral character. 

It is supposed that the silk weavers of Asia invented 
diaper weaving. Damask, which was formerly made 
entirely of silk, though now both of worsted and linen, 
takes its name from the city of Damascus, whence it 


is supposed to have come. So that it is probable that, 
as we have already said, the diaper is the original of 
the damask ; and although we now apply the name 
exclusively to the class of patterns we have been des- 
cribing, yet the two are practically the same thing so 
far as structure of the cloth is concerned, and the one 
is the outcome and development of the other so far 
as character of design goes. 

In damask figuring we have, perhaps, more scope 
for producing large figures than in any other mode. 
Generally the ground is warp satin and the figures weft 
satin, or it may be the reverse. In either case the 
binding of the weft and warp together is the same in 
both ground and figure, so that the cloth is equally firm 
throughout. That being so, figures as large as we please 
may be introduced. It is not a question of having so 
much loose material on the face or the back, but 
merely the exchange of places of warp and weft, the 
two continuing to interweave in the same order which- 
ever may be uppermost. One matter relating to the 
structure of the cloth requires notice here. We have 
said that to have a perfect structure of cloth the 
relative proportions of warp and weft must be re- 
gulated by the pattern of the fabric. In damask 
weaving what is termed the pattern of the fabric is that 
of the ground, or the general order of interweaving, 
which is usually a satin. To make a satin perfect with 
the warp predominating on the surface, we say that there 
should be a greater number of warp threads per inch 
than weft \ and if the weft be on the surface, there 
should be a greater number of weft threads per inch than 
warp. Now, in damask we have the warp and weft on 
the surface alternately, and each weaving as a satin. 
Perhaps there may be nearly equal quantities of each, 
and at any rate both are on the surface at different 
parts of the cloth at the same time ; then it is quite 
impossible to comply with the conditions required to 
produce a perfect satin. We cannot make either material 

Chap. VI] DAMASKS. 135 

predominate just at the point where it comes to the surface, 
and nowhere else ; if one predominate it will do so not 
only in the figure or ground, but in both. Then we are 
reduced to the necessity of making the fabric equal 
both ways, that is, warp and weft will be equal both in 
quantity and thickness. But that equality will not be 
the same as for a plain cloth. In plain cloth, we say, to 
make perfect structure, not only should warp and weft 
be equal in quantity and thickness, but the intervals 
between the threads should be equal, or nearly so, to the 
diameter of the threads, so that warp and weft threads 
may bend round each other equally. In satin cloth the 
threads do not interweave alternately, but at least once 
in every five. Then our threads must be closer together 
than for plain cloth; but as both sets of threads come 
to the surface neither must be set so closely as if only 
one were intended to come to the surface, but just so that 
both warp and weft will have to bend a little out of the 
straight line, without departing so much from it as in 
a satin of a perfect type. 

The outcome of this must be, then, that in a damask 
we cannot have a perfect type of a satin. We certainly 
cannot, but we must come as near it as we can, con- 
sistently with the fact that both sides must be equally 
perfect, and not one side only. An examination of 
damask cloth, either in linen or worsted, will convince 
even the merest tyro of this, and more especially if he 
compare it with satins which are not figured after the 
style of damask. Instead of there being a fine unbroken 
surface, presenting only one set of threads to the eye, 
either in the ground or the figure, and all the points 
of interweaving of the warp with the weft being hid, he 
will see the weft come through to the warp surface, and 
the warp come through to the weft surface. The 
thicker the threads employed the more apparent will 
this be, and the thinner the threads the less will this 
be visible. The reason is not hard to find. Where 
the threads are thick the point of interweaving is 


more difficult to cover, by reason of their bulk, even if 
the threads on each side spread out pretty well ; but if 
the threads be thin, and those on each side of the point 
of interweaving spread out slightly, it will have a better 
chance of being covered; hence fine cloths present a 
more perfect appearance than coarser ones, although the 
diameters of the threads in both bear exactly the same 
ratio to the number in a given space. Although damask 
patterns are usually made upon fabrics with a satin 
ground, and the figure, as we have said, is produced by 
the warp and weft exchanging places on the surface, yet 
they are not necessarily confined to that only. As in 
other fancy cloths, variety of working may be intro- 
duced to give more effect to the figure. At points 
where some special effect is desired the satin may be 
exchanged for a twill, and the twill may be varied in its 
direction, or even in its order of weaving. Sometimes 
small spots of weft or warp are introduced to give 
additional variety and effect to the pattern, but in all 
cases care must be exercised not to make the fabric 
too loose at any point. The general practice is to 
make these goods all of one colour, as, for example, in 
linen table-cloths and similar articles, and again in 
worsted damasks for furniture purposes. So that the 
whole effect of the pattern is dependent upon the threads 
of which it is composed, and which are placed at right 
angles to each other, being brought to the surface 
alternately, according to the form of the figure, and thus, 
by the light falling upon them at different angles, relief is 
given. It will be easily understood that a little variety 
in the order of interweaving the threads in the pattern, 
instead of keeping strictly to the ground pattern as satin 
will give a pleasing effect of light and shade to the whole. 
80. Combination of Damask and Repp. — Another 
type of fabric which is much used for furniture pur- 
poses is one which may be termed a combination of 
damask and repp, or a repp fabric with a damask figure 
upon it. The general body is constructed on the 

Chap. VI. J DAMASK AND REPt>. 137 

principle mentioned in the first chapter, with a number 
of threads together as one, alternated with a single 
thread, and the ground of the cloth woven plain, so that 
all the thick or combined threads when passing over the 
pick form a distinct rib across the piece. For the 
purpose of figuring, those thick threads are allowed to 
" float " or pass over all the weft picks, so that they 
present a flat surface of loose warp upon the ribbed 
ground. This is all very well where the figures are 
small, and make stiff-looking objects, which run either 
across the piece or in diagonal lines ; but if the figures 
are too large or too long in the direction of the warp 
there would be too much looseness, more especially for 
use in connection with articles of furniture, such as 
covering of chairs, &c. Then to prevent this looseness, 
and to enable the designer to employ large figures, the 
threads which combine to make a thick one are sepa- 
rated in the figuring, and woven into the ground weft in 
the order of a satin or twill. By this means not only 
the flat surface required is produced, but with the 
number of ends which they make when separated they 
cover the weft and the points of interweaving most effec- 
tively, and make a firm fabric \ and in this, as in the 
damask proper, great variety may be obtained in the 
pattern by using a variety of twilling to give shaded ef- 
fects. From the very boldness of the ribbed ground, the 
prominence of figures formed by the thick threads where 
they are not separated, and the flatness of the figure 
where they are separated, more effective and striking 
patterns may be made upon fabrics of this class than 
upon the ordinary damask. Quite as much extent of 
figuring can. be produced, either floral or otherwise, and, 
of course, greater variety of effects. If proper regard be 
paid to the relative thickness and number of the threads 
according to the pattern, the cloth will be a most useful 
one also ; but if this be neglected, in common with all 
repp goods, they will be liable to " fray," and be unser- 
viceable for wear. 


81. Figuring with Extra Material— Extra Warp.— 
We have now examined pretty fully into the question of 
figuring with the material of which the fabric is com- 
posed We must next enter into figuring with extra 
material, or the introduction of weft or warp, or both, 
for the purpose of forming pattern. 

We shall now begin to find our knowledge of double 
cloths of value ; for the whole system of figuring with 
extra material may be said to be based upon double 
cloth, although two cloths are not actually formed. 
Even though we may not actually form two distinct 
cloths, yet we have one warp and weft making the fabric 
proper, and we have another weft, or warp, or both, 
forming figures upon it. In some instances, where we 
use both warp and weft extra, we may be said to actually 
form double cloth, at intervals, at any rate \ because if 
the extra materials interweave to make a figure, they 
will, as a matter of fact, at that point form a cloth 
of their own, separate and distinct from the ground 

We will deal with this subject under the three 
distinct heads : — First, where extra warp only is used ; 
second, where extra weft only is used ; and third, where 
both extra weft and warp are used ; at the same time 
the combination of figures formed by extra material 
combined with those formed with ground material must 
be shown. 

We will first take figures formed with extra warp, 
and deal with it in stripe form. Suppose we make 
a perfectly plain cloth for the ground, and we wish to 
make a stripe upon it either figured or otherwise ; we 
arrange the stripe ends in such a manner that they pass 
alternately to the face and back of the cloth, according 
to the pattern, but they take no part whatever in the for- 
mation of the cloth. When they come to the surface the 
ground cloth remains plain underneath them, and when 
they go to the back the ground cloth remains plain above 
them. Fig. 84 will represent a longitudinal section. In it 


the ground cloth is shown as being quite plain through- 
out, and the thick thread, which represents the extra 
warp, is shown as passing from one side of the cloth to 
the other to 

form figure. ^^ _ _ ^S ^ 

In the ar- wft^ X -V - v -' v/ J^ J v/ ^ *P« 
rangement Fig. 84. 

of fabrics 

figured in this manner, the first condition, to ensure 
the figure being solid in appearance and effectually 
covering the ground, is that the extra threads should 
be set as closely together as ever they can be, and that 
they shall be of sufficient thickness to cover the inter- 
stices between them as nearly as possible. Those extra 
threads must, of necessity, be alternated with the 
threads of the ground warp ; then, to ensure this solidity 
as far as may be, two conditions are requisite in the 
ground fabric : first, the ground threads must be set 
closely together, and second, these threads must be 
as thin as possible ; and further, there should not be 
more than one ground thread between the extra ones. 
Suppose that the ground warp is set very openly, the 
extra threads have not only to fill the space between 
them, but it must spread out so as actually to cover 
them. If the diameter of those extra threads be less 
than the spaces, it cannot, of course, even cover these 
spaces ; and if the diameter and space be equal, it of 
course can do no more than cover the space, so that 
there would be a space between each extra thread equal, 
at least, to the diameter of the ground thread, and that 
could not possibly show a solid compact figure on the 
surface. Again, if the space between the ground 
threads be small, but the threads themselves be thick, 
extra ones would undergo some compression at the 
the point where they are passing from face to back 
or from back to face, but they will still be unable 
to spread out enough to cover the thick ground 
threads ; then there is only one alternative : if the 


figure must show a solid surface, the diameter of the 
extra threads must be equal to both the diameter of the 
ground threads and the spaces between them. It will 
then, at the point of changing from one side of the 
cloth to the other, undergo a compression equal to the 
diameter of the ground thread, or rather the two threads 
together — ground and extra — will undergo this com- 
pression ; and as the extra one issues from the cloth 
it will spread out to its full diameter, and so cover 
the ground effectively. If the " floats" on the surface 
be very long there will be all the better opportunity of 
covering, but if they be short these opportunities will 
be decreased. Now with regard to the question of 
compression. If the ground threads be " soft spun " 
— that is, not having much twist in them, the fibres 
lying loosely together — they will be all the more sub- 
ject to compression, and the extra ones will keep near 
their natural state. On the other hand, as is most 
commonly the case, if the extra threads be soft they will 
undergo the compression. Probably the latter alternative 
is the better, more especially if we look at it from a 
practical point of view. The ground threads have to 
bear all the strain of weaving; they form the wear- 
ing cloth ; they really constitute the fabric. The 
extra thread simply ornaments ; therefore, for the con- 
venience of the weaver, and to obtain the strongest cloth, 
the ground threads should be tolerably firm in their 
structure, and we may have the figuring threads soft and 
loose, so as to cover the ground in the most effective 
manner. We have been speaking now on the assumption 
that the ground of the cloth has to be absolutely 
covered by the extra material. We have done so to 
illustrate more clearly the true basis upon which we 
must work. It is well known that a succession of 
sounds, if sufficiently rapid, conveys to the ear the 
impression of a continuous sound; or, in like manner, 
a succession of sparks will convey the impression 
of a continuous line of light; then, if the colours of 


our extra warp be brighter than the ground, as they 
usually are, although they do not entirely cover the 
ground, the spaces between them may be so small that 
they will convey to the eye the impression of solidity, 
or continuity of colour. 

If we wish the stripe to appear solid, like some of 
those of which we have already spoken where they are 
" crammed," or have double the number of ends in a given 
space of stripe to what there are in the ground, we cannot 
obtain it so perfectly by treating it as extra warp, and 
allowing the extra warp to form figure upon plain ground, 
as if we employ all, both ground and extra, of the same 
colour to form the stripe. Nor will it have the same fine- 
ness of appearance. This will be very easily understood; 
by bringing extra warp to the surface to figure upon the 
ground, only half the quantity is presented to the eye 
that there would be if both ground and extra combined 
to form the stripe ; and whether the stripe be twilled or 
satin, it must appear finer in the latter case. 

On the other hand, the ground cloth being quite 
plain under the stripe will give a firmer and stronger 
fabric, and there will be less tendency to " cockle/' 
because of the texture being equal throughout. Again, 
from an economical point of view it may be advanta- 
geous. If the ground of the cloth be of cotton warp, 
and the stripe silk, it will be much cheaper to make it 
as an extra warp stripe, because only half the number 
of threads would be employed. Perhaps those would 
have to be somewhat thicker than if the whole were silk, 
but still there would be an economy, though we must 
again say not so good an appearance. 

It is not often, however, that this system of 
working is resorted to for the making of solid coloured 
stripes ; more generally it is employed for figured ones, 
and then it certainly does possess advantages. The 
figure may be approximately solid in appearance and 
well defined, and the stripe may be broken up as much 
or as little as may be desired by the figuring. 


Perhaps it will be necessary to show the arrange- 
ment of the design upon paper for figured stripes of this 

description. Fig. 85 is a design for 
BBSBBBSyyffiKffiS a sma11 figure. It will be seen 
EBnBBSn535552nnn that every alternate end weaves 
SSBBSBSSSBSBSHSS q* ite P lain > and the figuring ends 
■"aDBanaSngSSSaB form % lire onl y> and consequently 
■DDDSnaSSBaBySna ma y be brought to the surface as 
yaDSyBn5335aSnna much or as little as we please. The 
■■nBSBnaynnaSnnS % ure ma y be lar g e or small > or the 
yBnayDDDyaayyBaB stri P e ma y be broken up so that 
Fig. 85. there is little semblance of a stripe 

left, or it may remain nearly solid. 
Very frequently, although the warp is introduced in 
stripe form, no stripe is formed, but merely spots ; the 
warp coming to the surface to form the figure, then 
passing to the back and remaining there until required 
to form another spot. If the spots are some distance 
apart, the loose material at the back must be dealt 
with. It must not be left loose for any length ; it 
must either be bound at intervals into the cloth, or cut 
away. Sometimes difficulties arise with this loose ma- 
terial. If the cloth be a thin one, and more especially 
if it be woven quite plain in the ground, the loose 
material which is not figuring cannot be bound into it 
without showing through to the surface, and it would 
be most objectionable to have it showing through in dots 
at all the points of binding. Thus there is no alterna- 
tive but to cut it away. Then, again, another difficulty 
arises. If after forming the figure on the surface it 
simply pass to the back, as shown in Fig. 84, and we cut 
away that which is at the back, there will be nothing to 
keep the figure on the cloth but the slight pressure of the 
ground threads upon the figuring threads at the point 
where they pass through the cloth. This would cer- 
tainly not be sufficient, at any rate, if the cloth is to be 
applied to any useful purpose. The least rubbing on the 
figure would bring it away from the cloth as so much 


loose yarn. Then we must bind it into the cloth 
round the edges of the figure. The best method of 
doing this is to let the extra ends weave plain into the 
ground cloth all round 

fhp fimirp fnr a «nflRpipn+, □□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□ 

tne nguie 101 a buiiioieiit oQDDDnnnBDBDBDBnDDDDDDaa 

rmmhpr of rnVkq to mnVp DDanDDnBnBDnBBBnBDBDBDna 

numuer or picks to nidKe DDDDiniDiaiMiiMDDBDiDD 

if firm fVtPn fViP lnnqp DnDDDBDDBBBBBBDDBBaDBDBn 

it: nrm, tnen tne loose DDaDBDDBBBBBBDDBDDDBnBan 
varn mnv bp out, from flip □DDnDBnBBBBBDnBnBnnDDnna 
yam may ue cut noiii uio DDBDBDBBBBBBDBDBDDnnnDDa 

riQplr rrnf if lrm^f unf 1>p DDDBaDBBBBBBBOBaanDDaaDn 

pnf nnifp plnqp fo thp nBDBaDBBBBBBBnBDBnnDDann 

cut quite ciosc to tnc DDBnBDDBBBBBDBaBnnnDnnDa 

plnfli V\cr Rf\ id a nlnn DDaBDBDDBBBDBnBDDDnanDDa 
ClOtll. Jig. OU lb d, pidii □□□aDDBDBDBDDBDDDDDDDDDa 

of a small spot showing Fig. 86. 

the binding around the 

spot. If this binding can be introduced as part of 
the figure it will be all the better, and if some 
more can be introduced into the body of the figure 
better still. This may be done, not only as a species 
of shading to the figure, but also to give variety of 
effect to the colour. This subject of binding also 
brings another matter before us. We very fre- 
quently have to give variety and character to our 
figures by what might perhaps be called light and 
shade ; that is, we wish the figure to vary in the degree 
of prominence given to its various parts. At some 
points the colour should appear in its full intensity, 
at others in a somewhat subdued form, and again at 
others be modified to the extent of being almost 
invisible. To obtain these effects we must bind the 
figuring material into the body of the cloth in a suffi- 
cient degree, and in such order as will reduce the colour 
to what we want. This binding we may vary as we 
please. We may twill in either a bold or a very firm twill, 
or we bind in plain or satin ; our twill may throw a pre- 
ponderance of the material to the face, or it may throw 
it to the back ; in fact, we may bring as much or as little 
as we please to the surface, and so produce any effect 
we desire. 

If the fabric upon which we are figuring with extra 


warp be a heavy one, we can deal much more readily 
with the binding. Should the ground be twill or satin 
instead of plain,, we can bind into it at will, without its 
showing through to the surface, upon the same principle 
as binding double cloths. In fact, where the extra warp 
comes, we treat it as a double warp cloth, except where 
it is forming figure. In such cases it is not often neces- 
sary to cut away loose material at the back. Having 
facilities for binding, it is better to do so, not only 
because of the saving of labour, but also because the 
figure will be less liable to pull out in wearing. Where 
cutting is resorted to we can never be quite sure that 
the binding round the edge of the figure is sufficient, 
more especially if cut too close ; therefore it is not 
desirable to resort to it, except under circumstances 
which admit of no alternative. 

In addition to spots or stripes formed with extra 
warp, we may figure all over the fabric with it, and by 
this means produce not only very pretty, but very elabo- 
rate designs ; for we may use more colours than one, and 
even with the use of one colour we have excellent scope 
for making pretty patterns. We have two illustrations 
in Plate 3 of figures formed with extra warp, one with 
the use of one colour only, and one with two colours. 
With regard to the arrangement of these two colours, 
they must of necessity be arranged in stripes in the 
warp, that is, a given number of ends of one colour, and 
a given number of the other, and so on. The first 
object, however, must be to arrange the design so that 
these stripes are not too apparent on the surface ; the 
figure must be broken up in such a manner that the 
existence of the stripe is not too plainly visible, at any 
rate to the untrained eye. 

This breaking up of the figure may be very mate- 
rially assisted by the use of figuring with the ground 
material along with the extra warp, and if judiciously 
done, very pleasing effects will be the result. Again, to 
assist the breaking up of the stripes, we may vary them 

A' rv xcC 

*v /;.>. tn. 


'<M ) ?$•* 

W- ''V A/ ^ 

Plate III 


as much as ever we please in size, and at the same time 
we shall be varying the sizes of the different figures 
formed by each colour respectively at various points. 

In arranging designs for figures formed with extra 
warp upon the design paper, proper regard must be 
paid to the relative quantities of warp and weft. 
Suppose all over the piece the extra ends are alter- 
nate with the ground ends, and that the quantities 
of ground weft and warp are equal, then the total quan- 
tity of warp will be just double that of the weft. In 
that case if the Jacquard machine with which we are to 
weave the cloth has eight rows of hooks, our paper must 
have eight divisions in one direction and only four in the 
other — what is known as eight by four paper. If we 
were to use paper equal both ways, the figure would of 
course be distorted, the width on the paper being 
double that of the length, if it were to be correct in the 
cloth; and if correctly drawn on paper, it would be 
drawn to double the length on the cloth in weaving. 

82. Extra Weft Figures. — We now come to the 
question of figuring with extra weft. This mode of 
figuring possesses decided advantages over the system 
with which we have just been dealing, and has but one 
disadvantage compared with it. When we figure with warp 
alone we weave as if we were weaving a plain, twill, or 
satin cloth only ; the weft which forms the ground serves 
also to bind the figure. Consequently we can weave at a 
more rapid rate, having to pass the shuttle a sufficient 
number of times to make the ground cloth only, where- 
as in weaving with extra weffc we have to form the 
ground cloth and pass the shuttle to form the figure 
also. On the other hand, in warp figuring we have 
the warp very crowded. This adds to the diffi- 
culty of weaving if carried too far, so that in most cases 
we are confined to the use of one colour only, or if we 
use more, they must be arranged in stripe form, as shown 
in Plate 3. Now, in figuring with extra weft we may 
use as many colours as we please ; it simply means the 



use of so many more shuttles, and so much additional 
weaving •; that is, the shuttle has to be passed through 
the warp so many more times, though this is necessarily 
accompanied by slow production. Again, by the use of 
the " swivel " we may dispense with the loose material 
on the back, and use only just what is required to form 
the figure ; and there is also an advantage in putting the 
pattern upon design paper, no distortion being necessary, 
as we shall show. 

All that has been said respecting the relative thick- 
nesses of the figuring and ground threads applies to weft 
figures equally with warp figures. 

It is not often that continuous stripes are formed 
across the piece with extra weft, though it may perhaps oc- 
cur sometimes. If it does, however, it will generally be in 
conjunction with warp stripes, so as to form a check pat- 
tern, though it frequently happens that the weft is 
thrown all across the piece to form spot figures. In such 
cases, what has been said of binding and of cutting off 
loose material in warp stripes will exactly apply also to 
weft, so that we need not enter further into the considera- 
tion of that question. Let us, then, turn to the discus- 
sion of figures formed with the " swivel," and see what 
are the advantages to be gained. 

What is known as the " swivel " is an apparatus at- 
tached to the loom, and carrying a series of small shuttles, 
each being intended to form a separate spot ; and in 
the process of weaving, after the shuttle carrying the 
ground weft has been passed through the warp, the 
" shed " is opened, or the warp threads are separated 
for the weft which is to form the figure, and instead 
of one shuttle being passed all the way across the 
loom, carrying weft which has only to form figure at 
intervals of two, three, or four inches, a small shuttle is 
passed through the warp at each figure, so that each one 
is formed by its own weft and with its own shuttle. 
The advantage of this is obvious at first sight ; there is 
no loose material to deal with on the back, and conse- 





Plate IV 


sequently no need either to bind into the fabric or cut 
away. Again, as each figure is formed with a shuttle of 
its own, they may be of different colours ; whereas, if 
one shuttle must serve them all, they will, of necessity, 
all be of the same colour. 

The swivel, from the fact of its being a series of 
shuttles, is specially adapted for the production of spot 
figures ; and the shuttles all being of a given size, and 
set a certain distance apart, necessitate the figures 
being set in like manner ; in fact, the position of the 
figures is determined by the position of the shuttles, 
and the distribution of the figures is determined by 
the number of positions in which the shuttles can be 
placed. We have in Plate 4 a small figure formed 
by a swivel. An examination of the figures will show 
that the space occupied by the figure is much less than 
that between them. Generally the space actually oc- 
cupied by the figure must not be more than half the 
space between each; that is, if the width of the spot 
be one inch, there must be an interval of two inches 
between that spot and the next. This is entirely de- 
pendent on the construction of the " swivel " apparatus. 
There are several forms in use, some of which occupy 
much less room than others, and consequently al- 
low the spots to be placed much nearer together. With 
swivel figuring we are not necessarily confined to simple 
spots, but may make figured stripes, after the character 
of those we have spoken of as being produced by warp. 
The shuttle being placed in one position, if we keep con- 
stantly weaving without changing it, a continuous stripe 
would be the result. 

83. Combining Extra Weft Figures with Figures 
formed by Ground Weft. — Again, we may combine the 
extra figure with figuring produced by the ground weft. 
Suppose, for instance, we are wishing to weave a repre- 
sentation of a rose-bud. The leaves, stem, &c, may be 
formed by the ground weft, or we may use both weft 
and warp, and the bud itself may be formed by the extra 


weft. By this system of combining figures some very 
pretty effects may be produced economically, but great 
care is required in the arrangement of the designs. 
We have already shown that the spots formed with 
the swivel must occupy certain positions, according to 
the arrangement for moving the shuttle from one position 
to another. If the figures so formed are to be combined 
with others, all must be arranged so that they fall 
properly into the places assigned to them. 

Sometimes figures of this description are made with 
the extra material introduced as warp. In such cases the 
distortion of which we spoke with reference to warp 
figures occurs on the design paper; the extra ends coming 
in alternately with the ground ends only at intervals, the 
whole figure must occupy at those places double the space 
upon paper. The paper w^ill be ruled alike throughout. 
As the conditions of the pattern alter, so also must the 
form alter upon the paper. In extra weft figure this 
need not be the case. The figure may be painted upon 
the paper in the various colours, and the rest will be 
arranged in cutting the cards for the Jacquard machine. 
When cutting the ground cards, simply treat the extra 
colouring as if it were ground, and when cutting the cards 
for the extra figuring deal with it only. 

Swivel figures may assume a great variety of forms. 
They may be simple spots, or may introduce additional 
colour or colours into figures formed with the ground ; 
or the spots may be surrounded by checks. They may 
form continuous stripes, or, by the judicious movement 
of the shuttles and corresponding arrangement of the 
figure, waved lines ; or a series of figures broken in a 
greater or less degree may be obtained. In fact, there 
is scarcely a limit to the varieties ; the only limit is the 
width of figuring which may be produced at once. 

Although swivels may be used to give us these 
varieties of figures, with economy of material, yet we 
have often to step beyond their range. If our figur- 
ing occur too frequently, or occupy a greater area than 

Plate V. 


the swivel can give, then we must resort to the ordinary 
shuttle, and throw the weft all across the piece. j 

If we throw the weft across the piece for the pur- 
pose of forming spot figures only, it will often be 
desirable to arrange the figures so that they shall not 
too strongly suggest a stripe. This may sometimes be 
the result of the arrangement of the figure formed by the 
ground material accompanying the extra figure ; for 
instance, if the ground figure run in a diagonal direction, 
as in the designs in Plate 5, although the spots are really 
in straight lines across the piece, the general arrangement 
altogether neutralises it. In the first of these two figures 
the spots are so far apart that they might be easily woven 
with the swivel. It would only require to be so that it 
could be moved the requisite distance to suit each spot. 

In the second design the spots are so arranged that 
the weft forming the large spots is at the same time 
forming also the small ones, yet there is nothing that will 
suggest to the eye a straight line of colour across the 
fabric. If the figures be large and rather close together 
it will not be easy to prevent the tendency to show 
stripes ; but if they be small and well distributed it may 
be prevented without much trouble. If we use more than 
one colour in the same spot, as will often be necessary, it 
will be desirable as far as possible to arrange the colours 
so that one colour is ended before the other begins ; or 
if that would make the division too harsh, let both 
colours run simultaneously for a short period. But in 
using two colours one of two things must be done — 
either the two colours must continue simultaneously 
throughout the fabric, or for a very short period only. 
As can be easily understood, if two extra colours come 
in together for a time, and then either one or both 
cease, or if one cease and the other shortly after, there 
will be great variation in the bulk of the cloth, and that 
variation will detract from its value as an useful article. 
We may introduce one colour at intervals and not mate- 
rially affect the structure. If the cloth be a heavy one 


we may, perhaps, introduce two, but if the cloth be a 
light one two will be dangerous. But if our colours be 
judiciously treated, and arranged in such a manner that 
one commences when the other has finished figuring, 
whether it be to take part in the formation of the same 
spot or another, then we may use them with freedom. 

In Plate 6 we have two examples, one showing the 
use of two colours, or rather two shades of the same 
colour, which would necessitate the use of two shuttles, 
as though they were two colours. In one case both 
colours take part in the formation of the same figure, 
and in the other they form separate figures. 

In the pattern when both colours go to form one 
figure, there is a tendency to show a stripe across the 
piece. Even if this occur only in a slight degree it will 
offend the eye ; possibly it would be less offensive if the 
stripe were more decided : it can neither be called a 
figure free from stripe, nor can it be called a stripe. 
The latter is suggested without actually having an 
existence. This might be neutralised to some extent by 
the introduction of other small spots between, so as to 
break the line a little, or rather to show the colour 
more distributed over the surface of the cloth. 

When we are figuring with extra weft we do not 
necessarily confine ourselves to its use for spot figures 
or stripes, but figure all over the surface of the cloth, 
and we figure not only with one colour but with many 
colours. In the common speech of the trade, when 
we figure with a number of colours all over the fabric, 
each colour is termed a "cover;" thus, it is no uncom- 
mon thing to hear the terms, " three cover," " four 
cover," &c. This means that three, four, or any 
number of shuttles indicated by the number of 
" covers " follow each other in regular succession in 
the order of weaving, or that every time a ground 
pick is inserted so many picks of extra weft, or that 
which takes no part in the formation of the cloth, only 
in figuring, follow it in regular succession. Sometimes 

Plate VI. 


it may be spoken of as "three covers," or ■" ground 
pick and two covers," which would mean that there 
is a ground weft and two extra wefts. Again, in 
some instances we have a number of " covers " and 
"extras;" that is, a number of colours running 
throughout as figuring material, and an extra colour 
coming in occasionally to form some particular part of 
the figure. 

Now, when we are making a cloth with a number of 
" covers," it does not necessarily follow that we are con- 
fined to that number of colours ; though such is generally 
the case, one of the " covers " may be a " changing " 
one. Instead of always remaining the same it may 
consist of two or more, but always keeping the same 
relation to the others. When one colour has completed 
its portion of the figure another takes its place, and so 
on ; so that if it is called a " three cover," there may be 
four, five, or even six colours, but there are never 
more than three wefts being inserted at once. Either one 
or two of the covers may be " changing " ones. 

When we are making cloths of a number of colours, 
we cannot make them very light fabrics in weight, so 
that we have an opportunity of binding the loose mate- 
rial into the back. In some cases the extra materials 
instead of being bound into the face cloth, have a bind- 
ing warp at the back with which they interweave, and 
form a separate cloth or "lining." This has two advan- 
tages : first, it enables us to deal readily with the extra 
material, and leaves none loose on the back, as well as 
forms a good support to the face cloth, giving addi- 
tional strength ; and second, it saves any risk of the 
binding showing through to the face. Again, some- 
times there is a separate back put upon the cloth, so that 
all loose material w^hich could not be conveniently bound to 
the face, and which might not be sufficient to form a 
separate cloth on the back, might be held between two 
cloths, and so give the cloth a " smart " appearance, as 
well as additional strength. 


When we are figuring with extra wefts in this 
manner we have also the ground material which we may 
use for the same purpose, and thus give more variety to 
the pattern ; and in order to retain the full strength and 
compactness of cloth, when the ground weft comes to the 
face, one of the extra wefts takes its place, weaving into 
the warp as the ground weft ; thus forming, in addition 
to keeping the doth strong and perfect, a more stable 
background for the figure, and throwing it more promi- 
nently to the surface. To such an extent is this carried 
sometimes, that it would be difficult to say which is the 
ground and which is the figuring weft. In figures of 
this description the same resource is open as in making 
spot figures by interweaving the extra or figuring mate- 
rial into the ground for the purpose of giving variety of 
shade to the pattern. If we are weaving, for instance, 
with black figuring weft upon a white ground, by allowing 
the black to enter into the structure of the ground fabric 
we may produce as much variety and as much delicacy 
of light and shade as in fine engravings. 

Suppose we are weaving a small picture, a land- 
scape, a portrait, or designs in which foliage or great 
variety of light and shade is required, and our 
ground cloth is a plain one. To obtain the deepest 
shadows, we should bring the black weft to the sur- 
face, and if it had to cover a large area, or such that 
if allowed to float for a considerable distance the weft 
would be too loose on the face, we should bind it in 
satin order just enough to attach it to the cloth with 
sufficient firmness, without at the same time allowing 
the white to show through it. Then for a medium 
between black and white, let the black weft enter 
into the ground and form plain cloth, passing the 
white weft to the back out of the way. For the lighter 
shades, or where it approaches white, simply let the 
black enter into the ground in some twill form, more or 
less of it entering into the structure of the cloth, accord- 
ing to the depth or lightness of the shade required, and 



Plate VII 


by this means we may obtain any degree of light and 
shade that may be needed. 

Some splendid examples of this kind of weaving are 
exhibited in the well known book-marks of Mr. Stevens 
of Coventry, not only as illustrating the best methods of 
figuring with coloured yarns, but really as works of art. 
The use of coloured silks as well as of black and white is 
shown in many of these productions in the most perfect 
manner. Again, in the Paisley shawls, which were so 
extensively worn some years ago, we have some beautiful 
examples of weaving. In the fancy waistcoats of a by- 
gone day, and in some of the ladies' dress goods cf the 
present time, excellent work is also displayed. 

In Plate 7 we have a small portion of a pattern 
copied from a Paisley shawl, not by any means one of 
the most intricate designs, nor showing the greatest 
variety of colour, but sufficient to show clearly the prin- 
ciple. This is what would be called a " three cover," or 
16 two cover and ground." There are two colours em- 
ployed for figuring upon a white ground, the white itself 
taking some part in the formation of the figure. One 
striking feature of this design, as indeed of many of the 
patterns for this class of shawl, is that there is not at 
any point a great quantity of one colour either on the 
face or back of the cloth at once. This arrangement 
prevents the necessity for binding the loose material, 
although with the amount of figuring on the face 
the binding might be done without there being much 
probability of its being seen on the face ; yet in light 
fabrics, such as the one from which this design is copied, 
it is better not to have to resort to it, but to bind by figur- 
ing. Although we may not bring any of the colours to 
the surface in large quantities at once, yet there is no 
difficulty in making predominate sufficiently at any 
part of the design to give character to it, as will be 
seen from the example before us. We have only to bear 
in mind the illustration we have previously made use of, 
of the succession of sounds conveying the idea of a con- 


tinuous sound. A close examination of this pattern 
shows that the colour is in small patches, but at a short 
distance it has the appearance of being solid in colour. 
This is one of the most simple of patterns of this des- 
cription, but it will probably be sufficient to convey to 
the student an idea of the manner in which they are 
formed. Yery frequently a great many colours are 
employed, sometimes each colour being continuous 
throughout, at other times some of them " changing," 
and so giving greater variety. It would be an easy 
matter to multiply the illustrations infinitely, but pro- 
bably most students of weaving will have opportunities of 
examining real fabrics of this description, which would 
convey more to their minds than any amount of writing. 

In Plate 8 we have an illustration of a design for 
ladies' dress goods. It is a species of lace pattern 
upon the surface of the fabric, and was awarded the 
gold medal offered by the Worshipful Company of 
Clothworkers of the City of London at the Fine Art and 
Industrial Exhibition at Bradford in 1882. The designer 
of it, Mr. James T. Lishman, has kindly given permission 
for its use in this work. The pattern is formed by one 
extra weft and the ground weft combined; but though 
we speak of them as a ground and an extra weft, it 
would be difficult to say which we should have to call 
the ground, for both take an equal part in the forma- 
tion of the cloth. The ground fabric is a satin with the 
warp on the surface and very closely set in the threads ; 
this gives an opportunity for binding both wefts into the 
warp, and so imparting additional firmness to the cloth. 
Both wefts are lighter in colour than the warp, and thus 
the pattern is shown to the best advantage. 

This pattern is an illustration of the fact that all our 
figuring material need not be the same ; one is of silk 
and the other of worsted. Patterns are frequently made 
where the yarns are different in the materials of which 
they are made, and of the same or different colours. In 
some instances, as in the use of soft wool and silk to- 

Plate VIII. 


gether, we may obtain very pretty effects, simply from 
the difference in the brightness of the material. If one 
be dull and the other very bright, the pattern will be 
distinctly visible, though both are of the same colour. 
Other instances might also be mentioned, such as the use 
of mohair, or alpaca and cotton in combination, and in 
all cases the effect of the pattern is dependent upon the 
brightness of one material and the dulness of the other. 

84. Combination of Extra Warp and Weft. — We 
must now turn our attention to the production of pat- 
terns in which extra warp and weft are both employed, 
and a consideration of the reasons for using both. 

One of the commonest forms of using both extra 
warp and weft is for the production of stripes with 
figures running between. Thus, for instance, if we were 
to take the pattern on Plate 4 where we have spots set 
some distance apart, and we wished to insert a stripe 
either between every figure or at alternate figures, that 
stripe would in all probability be of a different colour 
from the figures, and even if it were the same, it would 
be better and easier to make the stripe with extra 
warp than with weft. Then we have here not only one 
of the commonest forms of the use of both materials, 
but one which commends itself at once as being both 
a ready and economical mode of making such patterns. 
Of course this class of pattern is capable of an endless 
variety of arrangements \ the stripes may be varied, and 
the figures also, and figure may be formed upon the 
stripe as well as upon the ground of the cloth by the 
extra material ; and again in this, as in other cases, 
we may call in the aid of the ground material to give 
further variety to our figures. Another form of using 
both warp and weft is where we are figuring all over the 
fabric with extra weft, as in Plate 8, and we desire 
to introduce a small spot of a different colour, this spot 
to come in only at intervals. More force is given to this 
mode of working when our looms are capable of working 
with only a limited number of shuttles, and we wish to 


use more colours than we have shuttles. In addition 
to that, where the spot can be as readily made with the 
warp, as we have previously pointed out, it saves time 
and expense in weaving, so that the designer will find 
numbers of instances where he can introduce a spot with 
extra warp, and add very materially to the effect of his 
pattern, without in a great degree increasing the cost. 
In such cases due care must be taken in arranging the 
pattern upon paper because of the distortion at the point 
where the extra warp comes in, caused by that warp 
being alternate with the ground. 

Not only may we use extra warp for spots when we 
are figuring all over the fabric with weft, but we may 
also use both for figuring all over. Patterns made in 
this manner will have practically the same appearance as 
if two wefts had been employed ; but there is this great 
advantage — that when they are not forming figure on the 
face, they may interweave with each other so as to form 
a cloth on the back, and prevent any loose material either 
from being cut off or bound into the face cloth, with the 
risk of showing through to the face. 

Both warp and weft are used for. the purpose of 
forming figures perfectly solid in colour, and of a 
texture quite different from the ground cloth, perhaps 
quite as frequently as for the purposes already named ; and 
in such cases it is no uncommon thing for several kinds of 
figuring material to be employed upon the same fabric. 
We may use silk and worsted, or cotton and linen, or 
any combination, according to the nature of the cloth we 
are making, or the purposes for which it is intended. 
Whenever we figure upon this principle, we deal with the 
extra material as belonging to a second cloth ; in fact, 
the principle of double cloth making is employed in its 
entirety. At the point where the extra materials inter- 
weave with each other, they form a cloth quite separate 
and distinct from the ground cloth ; and if both are 
passing to the back at the same time — that is, if at any 
one point any of the extra warp is passing to the back, 


and at the same time extra weft, which may be forming 
figure elsewhere, is passing to the back also — they inter- 
weave with each other, and so form cloth at the back of 
the fabric. 

It will be easy to understand that by this system 
of working not only may we make the figures of 
any form, but we may introduce any number of colours 
also. If we make our warp in stripe form, and arrange 
the colours of the weft to correspond, taking care that 
any colour of weft always interweaves with the same 
colour of warp, and that the spaces occupied by each 
colour are equal to the spaces occupied by the figures 
they are to form, we shall have a series of figures, all 
different in colour but each solid in its own colour. 
Again, we may so arrange the colours of either weft or 
warp, or both, that each figure has more than one colour 
in it, and the colours may be mixed as we please ; so that 
this mode of figuring gives us more scope for producing 
pretty effects, especially where we must have the figure 
displaying solidity of colour, than any other mode of 

It is really an application of double cloth pure and 
simple in one sense. It is double cloth wherever figure 
is formed, but not necessarily all over the piece. If the 
two cloths were separated the ground would be one 
complete fabric, but not necessarily so of the figuring 
cloth — it would only appear in patches ; and if the 
figures are formed from different materials, as silk and 
worsted, each material interweaving with its own warp 
only, we may be said to be using portions of three 
fabrics, but not more than two of them occurring at the 
same place. 

But when we are figuring with extra warp and weft 
in this manner, we are not bound to confine them to 
interweaving with each other, but either or both may 
figure independently, and they may enter more or less 
into the ground cloth. In fact, we can combine in this 
one method of figuring all that we can do by each of 


the other methods with which we have dealt, so that of 
all methods of figuring this one is the most com- 

We have but one other mode of figuring to deal with 
at present, and that is what is known as lappet weaving. 
We shall subsequently have to point to other modes 
of ornamentation, but they will refer chiefly to special 
forms of structure in the fabric, and ornamenting by 
varying those forms of structure. 

85. Lappet weaving is really figuring with warp 
threads, but presents to the eye the appearance of 
figuring with weft, very similar to swivel figuring. 
To convey an accurate idea to the reader of the true 
nature of this class of figures, it will be necessary to 
describe the mechanical method of producing the figure. 
From the warp beam the threads are brought forward 
towards the cloth ; but instead of being passed through 
healds, in the usual manner, they are passed each through 
a needle in front of the reed or slay. These needles are 
carried in a vertical position on a horizontal movable 
bar. As a weft pick is being inserted the bar is raised, 
still keeping its horizontal position. The eye of the 
needle is near its upper extremity, so that as it is pushed 
through the warp which forms the lower half of the 
u shed," the threads which it carries are raised to the 
position occupied by the upper half of the shed, so giving 
room for the shuttle to pass under them. The moment 
the shuttle has passed through the warp the bar is 
lowered until the needles are quite clear of the warp ; it 
is then moved horizontally to the right or left, and such 
distance as is required to form the intended figure ; it is 
again raised, the weft inserted, lowered again, and the 
same operation repeated as before. By this method of 
moving the threads, a figure is formed on the under side 
of the cloth. This will really have to be the face ; the 
cloth is woven wrong side up. The figuring material is 
bound into the fabric by being passed round a weft 
thread, always entering and issuing from the cloth 


between the same warp threads, but not between the 
same weft threads. Figures of this description are easily 
distinguished from "swivel" figures, or any figures 
formed by weft. In forming weft figures the thread 
does not necessarily " float " on the surface the entire 
width of the figure, but may be bound into the cloth at 
any point, or any number of points, either for the 
purpose of preventing looseness or for producing given 
effects, such as the veins or stems of leaves or flowers. 
But lappet figures cannot be so bound ; they must 
" float n the entire length of the figure, consequently the 
figure must be of a simple character, and present an 
appearance of solidity. An appearance somewhat 
approaching that of a " swivel" figure may certainly be 
produced by letting the thread forming the figure enter 
the cloth at some point in the middle of the figure, but 
a pick of weft must be inserted before it again issues 
from the cloth, so that it will present the appearance 
of two threads, not of one thread having simply been 
bound into the cloth by passing under warp. 

Lappet figures are not usually made very large or 
in masses ; they generally are of a scroll character, 
showing only thin lines, such as would be produced by a 
thread stitched into the cloth at intervals, so as to form 
some simple pattern, similar to that shown in Plate 9, 
Fig. 16, and referred to at page 188. Of course it must 
be understood that the threads for figuring are not 
set so closely as the ground warp, but at intervals of 
an inch or so, according to the size and arrangement of 
the figure. 

This method of figuring has peculiar advantages, and 
some disadvantages. As compared with " swivel " weav- 
ing, it uses just the quantity of material required to 
form the figure as the swivel does ; but the figure cannot 
be bound into the cloth in the same way, and consequently 
cannot give the same effects. On the other hand, the 
figures can be set nearer together, in fact, as near as we 
please \ we need not consider the size of the shuttles. And 


again, we have not to pass a shuttle through the warp 
for the sole purpose of forming the figure ; the ground 
weft binds in the figuring thread, just as in ordinary 
warp figuring, so there is economy of time and labour. 

86. The allotment of Area to Figures. — We have 
now dwelt generally with all the ordinary methods of 
figuring on fabrics, and also to some extent with the 
effects upon their structure, but we must take into con- 
sideration the areas to be occupied by figures of different 
descriptions, not so much in reference to the ornamental 
or decorative effect intended to be produced, as to the 
effect upon the texture of the cloth and its application 
to useful purposes. If we are making figures by allowing 
the material which forms the ground of the cloth to cease 
to interweave and simply lie loosely one upon the other, it 
is very obvious that we cannot carry the figuring to any 
great extent without very materially impairing the 
structure of the fabric and affecting its utility. We 
have already shown the necessity for perfect distribution, 
and the question of the proportional area which the 
figure must occupy in relation to the ground ought 
always to accompany that of equal distribution. To lay 
down hard and fast lines, definite rules, would be 
impossible ; we must be guided in the first instance by the 
uses to which the fabric is to be applied, and in the second 
place by the order of interweaving of the ground cloth. 

No matter what may be the structure of the ground 
cloth, if the figuring occupy a considerable portion of 
the surface we must alter the quantities of warp or weft, 
or both, because the want of structure at the points where 
the figure is formed will very materially affect the whole 
fabric, so that we cannot separate one consideration from 
the other. In fact, we must treat it somewhat as we 
treat twills, whether plain or fancy. As we have made 
the fabric loose in its texture by the order of inter- 
weaving, we must compensate for it by the increase of 
material, so that one set of threads can give the proper 
amount of support to the other. 


As we have seen, when figuring on the principles of 
diaper or damasks, we need not take the areas into 
account as when the figures are loose, for the texture of 
the cloth is not altered; it remains the same through- 
out, and our figures may occupy any space, or come as 
closely together as we please. The same may be said of 
figuring with extra material, provided sufficient pre- 
cautions have been taken to bind the figure on the face, 
so that the " floats " are not too long, or so that they do 
not appear as so much loose material on the face of the 
cloth. In figuring with double cloths we are much in 
the same position as with diapers and damasks ; no 
matter what extent of figuring we have, each weft con- 
tinues to interweave with its own warp 1 ; there is no loose 
material, but always a solid fabric. If the figures be 
very large, however, it may be necessary to bind them 
together in the middle of the figure, if formed of two 
separate cloths, else they would separate from each 
other, and give the cloth a flabby character ; but if 
it is simply a double faced cloth the binding goes on 
the same throughout. These considerations of allot- 
ment of area and the effects upon the fabric are such 
as must be dealt with as they arise, and as the circum- 
stances of the case may necessitate, and not by any arbi- 
trary rules, which could not apply in every case alike. 
The designer having made himself thoroughly familiar 
with all the various structures of cloth, with the relative 
quantities of warp and weft necessary to give a perfect 
fabric, and with the conditions and circumstances which 
will tend to destroy this perfection, will find little diffi- 
culty in counteracting these conditions as they arise. 

162 [Chap. VII. 



87. The Structure of Gauze. — We may now turn our 
attention to fabrics of a totally different character from 
those with which we have been dealing, and consider not 
only their structure or their decoration, but the 
decoration by variation in the structure. We have yet 
several classes of fabric to examine, all of which present 
certain inherent peculiarities in their structure, and 
these forms of structure we may combine with those 
we have already considered for the purpose of orna- 

We will first deal with gauze and its varieties, and 
examine into the structure and methods of ornamenting. 
The whole structure of gauze cloth is quite different 
from any other and most nearly approaches lace. The 
fabrics of which we have been treating up to now, 
whether plain or figured, have all the warp threads 
parallel to each other, and the patterns are produced by 
the order of interweaving. In gauze the warp threads 
are not parallel, but twist round each other more or less, 
and the pattern may be formed either by a variation of 
the order of twisting, or by their ceasing altogether to 
twist, and forming figure after the manner of cloths with 
which we have dealt. We will endeavour to discuss 
this subject in the most exhaustive manner possible, and 
show the combinations with other orders of weaving, but 
it will be a difficult matter to put the subject before the 
student in such a way as to elucidate all the uses and 
applications of gauze weaving. We can only hope to 
give the general principles, and show very briefly how 
we may combine with other orders of weaving for the 
production of patterns. 

Chap. VII.] PLAIN GAUZE. 163 

Since the introduction of the Jacquard machine, 
gauze, like other classes of goods, has been very much 
improved, at least so far as its combination with other 
orders of weaving is concerned. On the other hand, 
the introduction of the lace frame, and the consequent 
cheap production of lace, have caused some of the 
most elaborate forms of gauze weaving to become obso- 
lete. Murphy's excellent work on the "Art of Weav- 
ing," shows some most beautiful patterns of fabrics 
which have been quite superseded by lace, and which are 
probably not made, or anything approaching them, at the 
present time. Perhaps the introduction of power loom 
weaving — upon which, so far as they are perfected at 
present, such fabrics cannot be woven — may have had 
something to do with this, but cheap lace has probably 
had more. On the other hand, the combination of 
gauze with other orders of weaving, as it has been 
developed within recent years, gives much more beau- 
tiful patterns than the most elaborate gauzes of former 
days, though, perhaps, not so ingenious in the structure 
of the cloths. 

We will first deal with gauze in its simplest forms, 
and show the various methods of producing patterns, and 
then prooeed to the more elaborate combinations. 

Plain gauze has all the warp threads divided into 
pairs, the threads of each pair half twisting round each 
other between each weft thread. The plan in Plate 9, 
Fig. 1, is one of plain gauze. An examination of this 
plan will show that one half the warp is always under 
the weft, and the other half always over it ; the thread 
which comes uppermost always passing under the other 
between each weft pick, and consequently coming up on 
one side and then the other alternately, so that the fabric 
is held together solely by this crossing of the warp 
threads. If the straight thread were drawn out of the 
cloth, the crossing thread, or that which comes to the 
surface, would simply lie perfectly loose upon the weft, 
no interweaving whatever taking place. In fabrics made 


upon this principle there must of necessity be very great 
firmness of structure; the twisting of the threads round 
each other, and holding of the weft in their coils, as it 
were, must give a very strong texture. At the same time, 
the crossing of the threads between the weft picks will not 
permit these picks to come close together. Suppose we 
hold what we for convenience call the straight thread — 
that which never comes to the surface — perfectly tight, 
and allow the crossing thread to go comparatively slack 
during the operation of weaving, so that the crossing 
thread has not only to bend round the weft but also 
round the straight warp thread, each weft pick will be 
kept apart for a space just equal to the diameter of the 
warp thread; but if both threads are held equally tight, 
then, as each successive weft pick is driven up to the 
cloth, both are equally bent out of their course and the 
twist occurs exactly between the picks, thus keeping 
them a distance apart equal to at least the diameter 
of both threads. 

In the event of the threads being held at an equal 
tension in this manner we have a more open texture and, 
at the same time, a firmer one. When one thread is 
quite straight and the other bends round both it and 
the weft, the weft cannot be so firmly held between them 
as when the crossing thread is so tight as to draw the 
other out of its straight line. 

Of all fabrics there is none so firm in texture or so 
light in the quantity of material it contains as plain 
gauze. It cannot be made into a very bulky cloth, and 
the order of interweaving prevents it from being made a 
close, compact cloth. It will always present a perforated 
appearance, and increased thickness of threads, more 
especially of warp, will increase the size of the 

88. Figuring with Plain Gauze. — We must now 
proceed to deal with the ornamentation of gauze fabrics; 
and so as to deal most effectively with the subject, we 
»v ill first examine the various methods of crossing and 

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interweaving, and the reasons which may induce us to 
adopt them. We have shown in Plate 9, Fig. 1, a plan 
of plain gauze ; of this we may produce some varieties. 
If, for instance, we have every alternate pair of threads 
crossing in opposite directions, that will give a slight 
variation, but it will be more effective if the weft thread 
be very thick; it will throw it up as though it were a series 
of small spots. Again, further variety may be given to 
it by using thick and thin weft alternately, or by using a 
given number of picks of one thickness and a number of 
another ; or other similar means may be resorted to for 
the production of special effects. Again, a further 
variety of plain gauze may be made by having two pairs 
of threads crossing in one direction, say, from right to 
left, and at the same time two pairs crossing in the 
opposite direction. It may seem absurd to speak of 
forming patterns with plain gauze, but what we mean by 
plain gauze is where one end crosses one, and that at 
every pick, the mere reversal of the direction of crossing, 
or the use of threads of various thickness, although it 
produces pattern, still leaves the structure of the cloth 
equal to that of a plain gauze, so that we speak of it as 
such, but when we vary the order of crossing, then it 
may become a fancy gauze. 

A very pretty example of figuring with plain gauze, 
by reversing the crossing, and in which weft threads of 
different thickness are used, is shown in Plate 9, Fig. 2. 
Although in the order of crossing, with the exception 
that they are reversed, the cloth is quite plain, yet the 
combination of this reversal with the different thickness 
of the weft threads produces quite the effect of a figure. 

89. Figuring by various orders of Crossing. — In a 
great many instances of the production of patterns by 
varying the order of crossing, a number of weft threads 
are allowed to come together so as to form one ; they 
then separate, some of them after separation continuing 
single for some time, then rejoining the group, others 
leaving one group to form part of another, and so by 


varying the division and bringing them together at 
different points forming a distinct pattern. An example 
of this mode of working is shown in Plate 9, Fig. 3. 

This method of figuring, as may be seen, is capable 
of great variation, and, as compared with plain gauze 
weaving, will give more weight of fabric ; for while in 
plain gauze every pick is kept quite distinct, whether 
we reverse the crossing or otherwise, in this mode of 
figuring more picks run together to form one ; and 
although they may separate and form part of other 
groups, yet the fact of a number of picks running 
together, even at different points of the fabric, will 
permit of a greater number of picks per inch being in T 
serted, and so give more weight to the cloth. 

In addition to the mere formation of patterns in the 
gauze in this manner, we may combine any two or more 
of these orders of working for the production of stripe 
check or distinct figured effects. For instance, we may 
take the patterns shown in Figs. 1 and 3 (Plate 9) and 
form a stripe with them, or in like manner any two work- 
ings or patterns ; but there is one thing we must very 
carefully observe in doing so. We say that Fig. 3 will 
permit of a greater number of picks per inch of the 
same yarn than would Fig. 1. If that be so, and we 
combine them together in stripe form, we cannot put as 
many picks per inch into the cloth as will make the stripe 
formed of Fig. 3 pattern perfect without at the same time 
forcing too many into that formed with Fig. 1. Indeed, 
what will most likely happen will be that the plain 
gauze stripe will not permit the number of picks being 
inserted which can make the other perfect ; and even 
if it did, the warp forming the plain stripe would become 
very tight as compared with the other, and the gauze 
would not have a sufficiently open and perforated ap- 
pearance as compared with the fancy one. Then we 
must adopt some means of counteracting this ; we must 
have both stripes equally perfect in their structure. We 
may easily do this by allowing two or more picks — ac- 


cording to the pattern of the fancy stripe — go to form 
one of the plain gauze. By doing so we can bring both 
to the same density of structure very readily, and also 
give more openness to the plain gauze. 

It would be an easy matter to give a great many 
patterns of gauze made upon this principle, and some 
of them very nearly approaching the appearance of lace, 
and if we were writing a history of gauze we might 
show some most excellent and elaborate patterns produced 
in the days before the lace frame made such progress ; 
but at the present time their manufacture could not be 
carried on profitably. 

90. Combination of Gauze with other Orders of 
Weaving. — It is not so much in producing pattern by 
variety of crossing as by combining gauze with other 
forms of structure that such fabrics are made at the 
present time, and in this we may manufacture fabrics 
which do not come at all in competition with the lace or 
net goods. 

We will endeavour to deal with all the most general 
combinations, and show both the method of forming pat- 
terns and the chief characteristics of each kind of combi- 

We will begin by taking those combinations which 
most nearly approach pure gauze, and which are, in fact, 
intended to convey to the mind the idea of pure gauze, 
and at the same time produce a heavier fabric, with 
more marked perforations,, without making them actually 
coarse by using thick yarn. 

If we refer to Plate 9, Fig. 4, we have a pattern 
which is a combination of gauze and plain cloth, but 
which presents to the eye the appearance of pure gauze. 
The warp is divided into sets of four threads, and in 
the crossing two of those threads cross the other two ; 
at the same time there are four picks of weft which 
appear to go in as one. But those four picks are effec- 
tually separated by one pair of ends out of each alternate 
set interweaving with them as plain cloth, and the next 


set of four picks weaving plain with two ends of the next 
set of warp ends ; the result of this plain weaving being 
that, instead of the four picks which go into the cloth 
apparently as one, forming a thick rope, as it were, they 
are spread out and laid side by side, and form more of a 
ribbon-like structure. The effect of this, both in the 
appearance and in the structure of the cloth, is much 
better than if the four picks had gone in absolutely as 
one. The gauze effect is quite as good, the perforations 
being clearly marked, and the cloth is somewhat stronger, 
without appearing quite so bulky. In some instances, 
where it is desired to spread the weft even a little more 
than is done in the pattern before us, two of the four 
threads would weave plain with one set of four picks, 
and the other two with the next four. This would make 
the cloth a little firmer again, and prevent any possi- 
bility of any of the picks getting too close together or 
one on the top of another. A very simple and effective 
method of combining gauze with plain is shown in Plate 
9, Fig. 5, where two or more threads are weaving plain 
with the weft all through the piece, and a thick figuring 
end, as we might term it, is forming gauze by crossing 
and recrossing round the ground ends. In this pattern 
the effect is somewhat similar to that of the previous 
pattern, but the thick gauze thread gives it a good effect. 
Again, sometimes the gauze thread weaves plain into the 
ground along with the other ends, and then crosses round 
them, as shown in Plate 9, Fig. 6. 

In all the patterns we have shown so far all the 
crossing threads are crossing at the same time, so that 
the division between the picks is all across the piece. 
Certainly some of the threads are crossing in opposite 
directions at the same time. Even by this method of 
working we may produce some very pretty effects. 

The patterns shown in Figs. 2, 3, 5, and 6 (Plate 9) 
would have somewhat the appearance of net. The perfo- 
ration would all run in straight lines, but the threads 
would be drawn out of the straight line, and by some being 


drawn to the right and others to the left, a distinct net 
pattern would be formed. 

Although such patterns may be very pretty, much 
better effects may be produced by varying the crossing ; 
that is, by not letting all the threads cross at the same 
place. Take, for example, Plate 9, Fig. 7, in which the 
crossing threads form a distinct pattern. Another very 
good specimen is given in Fig. 239, p. 250, of my 
" Treatise on Weaving and Designing," 2nd Edition ; 
and did our space permit we might give numbers 
of illustrations all showing patterns of gauzes crossed 
in different manners, and producing some of the most 
beautiful effects in the fabric. 

When we have obtained all the patterns we can in 
the gauze, though they make pretty fabrics in them- 
selves, we may treat them as the basis for further 
ornament. We may combine any two of the different 
orders of working, and produce stripe or other patterns, 
or we may figure upon the gauze grounds, or form 
figures of gauze upon plain or other grounds. 

We have already shown the combination of plain 
with gauze in one simple form. Before entering too fully 
into the question of figuring with gauze, we may 
examine a few more simple combinations of a different 
character. Sometimes the introduction of gauze into a 
fabric is not so much for the purpose of ornament as to 
obtain lightness of cloth or openness of texture, and, as 
we have already shown, there is no better means of obtain- 
ing light open texture combined with strength than the use 
of gauze, and by combination of gauze with plain or 
other orders of working we may regulate the weight and 
bulk of the fabric. Take the example shown in Plate 9, 
Fig. 8. We have three picks of weft weaving quite 
plain, then a crossing takes place in the warp ; there are 
three more picks of plain, and another crossing takes 
place. Now this cloth is as nearly as possible a plain 
one, the crossing which takes place is not what is termed 
a full gauze, but only a "half-cross;" that is, after the 


crossing thread has changed from one side to the other 
of the straight thread it remains there for some time 
before crossing back again, all the time weaving plain 
with the weft. That being the case a division takes 
place, or the weft threads are held apart by the crossing 
of the warp threads at every three picks. This division 
will be equal to at least the diameter of the crossing 
thread of warp, and it will certainly be greater than that 
between two picks of the plain portion of the piece, and 
will therefore show an opening or " crack " all across the 
piece ; consequently there will not be as many picks per 
inch as if this crack did not exist, and as a matter of 
course the more frequently these cracks occur the less 
weft the piece will contain. Sometimes what is termed 
a full gauze pick is introduced ; that is, the warp crosses 
on both sides of one pick of weft, as shown in Plate 9, 
Fig. 9, the distances between the gauze picks being 
varied according to the weight of cloth required, or the 
effect desired to be produced. 

If we wish to combine plain cloth and gauze in 
stripe form, we must consider the relative structure of 
the two cloths. We will suppose in the first instance 
that we wish to have a stripe running the length of 
the piece plain cloth and gauze alternately, and we 
have the same number of threads per inch in both. The 
plain portion will be a very loose fabric and the threads 
would slip upon each other and fray ; that being the 
case we must either have a greater number of ends per 
inch in the plain stripe, or adopt some modification 
in the gauze. If we increase the number of ends 
in the plain stripe, or the diameter of the threads of 
which it is composed, or, what would be better, combine 
the two alterations, we may make it sufficiently firm, 
but we shall have increased the weight very considerably, 
and it is not desirable that there should be such a great 
difference in the weight of two portions of the same 
fabric as would necessarily accompany this arrangement ; 
then we must resort to the expedient of altering the 


gauze so as to enable us to put more weft in. This may- 
be done by simply letting a number of picks go into the 
gauze as one. Suppose, for instance, it should require 
sixty picks per inch in the plain cloth to make it such a 
cloth as we require, we could not possibly put sixty of 
such picks into the gauze portion, with the warp threads 
crossing between each one ; but if we allow two, three, 
or four of these picks to go into one shed between each 
crossing, then we can get them in quite easily. If two 
picks go in between each crossing, it reduces the number 
of crossings to one half, and the two go together to make 
one pick, and consequently occupy much less room. The 
most common practice is to put three or four picks to- 
gether, but this will be regulated by the quality and 
weight of cloth required. 

If the stripes are to be across the piece, then a dif- 
ferent mode of working must be resorted to. We may, 
perhaps, put more than one pick together in the gauze, 
so as to give more decision to the perforations, but we 
must alter the warp threads. We have up to now been 
speaking of the gauze ends as single in the warp, but we 
may put any number together. Suppose we want our 
plain stripe to be finer than the gauze in the proportion 
of two threads to one ; then when we are weaving the 
gauze, two threads go together as one, and the gauze 
shows two threads crossing two, but the moment we 
begin to form plain cloth they separate and work inde- 
pendently of each other. This method of altering the 
gauze, putting a number of threads together either in 
the warp or in the weft, or both, is the most ready and 
efficient for forming either stripes or figures. If in 
making patterns which are combinations of gauze and 
plain cloth we do not desire to have quite so much or so 
striking a difference as is shown between gauze and plain, 
the gauze having a number of threads together, both in 
warp and weft, we may obtain a medium between the two. 

We have in Plate 9, Fig. 10, an illustration of one 
mode of dividing the threads of weft after they have 


combined to form gauze, and also of intermixing plain 
in the gauze, and making that which is so intermixed 
different from the ordinary plain cloth in appearance. 
For the purpose of illustrating this most clearly, we have 
shown it as really forming part of a check pattern instead 
of a stripe ; that is, with plain cloth all round the gauze. 

The system of forming pattern in stripes or checks, 
by the combination of gauze and plain cloth, such as we 
have been dealing with, may strike the reader as being 
extremely simple. So it is. There is no more simple 
method of forming patterns upon light fabrics, or of 
ensuring the lightness of the fabric, and at the same 
time producing very pretty effects ; but in the decoration 
of gauze fabrics, or using gauze for the decoration of 
fabrics of other structures, the stripes or checks are 
the most simple, though even they are capable of giving 
very great variety, especially if threads of different 
thicknesses be employed, or if there be a variation in 
the number of ends and picks which are put together. 

91. Figures formed by Combination of Gauze and 
Plain Cloth. — Though we can produce great variety by 
combination of gauze and plain in these two forms, we 
have far more scope when we begin to form figures with 
them. There may be said to be two distinct methods 
of combining these two orders of working to form figures : 
first, figures formed by plain cloth upon gauze ground; and 
second, figures formed by gauze upon plain ground. 
We will examine both in detail, so that we may see to 
what class of fabric each is applicable. If we are making 
a plain cloth, and we wish to form patterns upon it by 
giving it the appearance of being perforated, we may 
introduce gauze working to form the perforations, and by 
doing so give lightness to the cloth without detracting 
from the firmness of structure, but rather adding to it. 
Take, for example, the small pattern, Plate 9, Fig. 11, 
where we have every alternate pick of weft forming 
gauze at some point, and the gauze being distributed 
regularly over the surface of the fabric. As it appears 


on the diagram, each of the weft threads forms straight 
lines, the warp bending round them at the point of 
crossing. This is shown so for the purpose of giving a 
clear view of the structure of the cloth; but in the actual 
fabric the weft threads would not form straight lines, 
but on each side of the gauze crossing would curve 
round, disclosing a distinct perforation on each side of the 
pick, and the thicker the warp threads the wider will 
the perforations be. The pattern we have here is one 
which in the cloth would convey the impression of the 
gauze and plain being in about equal quantities, although 
really only one-fourth of the interweaving is gauze, but 
the plain picks are so much bent out of their straight 
line, and jammed together by the crossing of the warp, 
that they occupy less space than they otherwise would. 
This will prove, then, that greater firmness is obtained 
in the cloth by the introduction of the crossing than if it 
were all plain. If the weft threads can be so much bent 
out of their straight line, and, as it were, pushed closer 
together by the gauze, they cannot be so firmly inter- 
woven with the warp ; the relative quantities or 
thicknesses of warp and weft threads cannot be such as 
to make a satisfactory cloth, were it not for the presence 
of the gauze. These remarks will apply all the more if 
the weft threads are soft; that is, loosely twisted together 
or made of soft materials. 

We have in this pattern a medium between pure 
gauze and plain cloth. It contains more material, is 
closer in texture, and heavier than if it were pure 
gauze, but not so close, compact, or heavy as a plain 
cloth. It presents the chief characteristics of the gauze, 
with some of the qualities of a plain cloth, or, in other 
words, it has the decorative features of gauze with the 
wearing properties of plain cloth. If we wish to make 
the perforations more marked, we can easily do so by 
letting the crossing take place with more than two ends ; 
that is, let two ends cross over two, or more ; or, let a 
number of picks go together to form one in the gauze. 


By resorting to either expedient we may have the plain 
portion both closer and heavier, and the gauze portion 
quite as open, or even more open, than in the combina- 
tion of simple plain gauze with plain cloth. 

We must, however, consider the character of figure 
most suited to this class of fabric, and the effect upon 
the cloth. An examination of a figured gauze will imme- 
diately reveal the fact that where the crossing of the 
threads takes place, a greater length of warp yarn is 
taken up than where there is no crossing, even in a small 
simple pattern like that shown in Fig. 1 1 (Plate 9), but 
if the gauze be further extended it will be even greater. 
In fabrics consisting of a combination of plain and gauze, 
for the most economical production, the whole of the 
warp should come from one warp beam. Such being the 
case the gauze must be distributed as equally as possible, 
so that one portion of the warp, by reason of a greater 
amount of gauze being formed with it, shall not become 
tighter than the rest. Then, if we are forming spots, 
they must be very equally distributed, so that every 
thread has its equal share in the formation of gauze. 
Again, the figures must not be too large, or occupy too 
much space at once, and the gauze must be considerably 
less in quantity than the plain, otherwise the plain 
portion of the cloth will be too thin, and the threads will 
be too loose upon each other. 

92. Distribution of Gauze Figures on Plain Ground. 
— We have already pointed out in reference to spot 
figures what is the best method of arranging the spots so 
as to secure equal distribution, and what was said there 
will also apply equally to gauze spots, and it is even 
more imperative that the rule should be observed than in 
ordinary warp or weft spots, so as to secure uniformity 
of texture. But we may not always desire to produce 
spot figures ; it may be that we wish to have figure or 
gauze working running all over the fabric, in fact, to 
imitate to some extent lace ; then we may adopt scroll 
patterns, or any other which will give such effects as we 


wish to produce. If we do adopt such figures we must 
be extremely careful in their arrangement, so as to 
ensure equal distribution. We shall generally find that 
geometrical designs are best adapted to this class of 
figuring, not necessarily of the stiffest character. We 
may introduce some freedom of design, but if we have a 
geometrical basis we shall be more certain of obtaining 
equal distribution. Of course, we are speaking now of 
the combination of pure gauze ; that is, one end crossing 
one, and only one pick between each crossing, with 
ordinary plain cloth, and the gauze forming the figure. 

93. Plain Figures upon Gauze Ground. — When the 
figure is formed by plain cloth upon gauze ground, the 
conditions of the structure are different. We obtain only 
a very light cloth if the warp threads are one crossing 
one and at every pick. The mere fact of so much cross- 
ing taking place — the greater part of the fabric being 
gauze — will necessarily make it a light open fabric ; that 
being the case, any figure formed by plain cloth will be 
very loose. No matter whether the figure be large or 
^mall this will apply ; but it would of course be more 
apparent in large than in small figures. If extremely 
light fabrics are desired, this mode of figuring may be 
resorted to, and some very pretty effects obtained ; but as 
in the case of gauze figure upon plain ground, there must 
be very perfect distribution, and if the figures are so 
small that the pressure of the warp in the crossing can 
push the weft picks a little closer together in the plain, 
the appearance may be very much improved, for not only 
will it make the plain look finer, but the curvature given 
to the weft threads will give a more novel effect than if 
they were quite straight and parallel to each other. 

1 It may be observed of gauze cloths, as differing from 
all other woven fabrics, that instead of keeping the 
threads of either warp or weft parallel to each other, the 
object very frequently is to draw them out of their 
parallelism as far as possible. 

94. Warp or Weft Figures upon Gauze. — This com- 


bination of gauze and plain is the most simple form of 
ornamenting gauze fabrics, no matter which of the two 
predominates or forms the ground. In addition to this 
system of figuring we may also resort to warp or weft 
figures, as in ordinary fabrics, but we must not be under 
the impression that when we do so we can figure as 
readily and with the same results as figuring on ordinary 

In the first place, if our ground cloth be an ordinary 
plain gauze, of the type of which we have been speaking, 
and we suddenly cease to form gauze, and leave the 
weft and warp quite free of each other, neither of them 
would be present in sufficient quantity to cover the other. 
And as it is usually one of the first conditions in figures 
that the material which comes to the face shall quite 
cover that which goes to the back, so as to present a 
solid appearance, it could not give a satisfactory effect if 
the warp and weft were both visible, one through the other, 
in the figure. Again, the sudden transition from gauze 
— the firmest possible structure of fabric — to absolute loose- 
ness, the warp and weft not interweaving at all, would be 
too great. If we wish to have either warp or weft figure 
upon gauze ground, we must separate the figure from 
the gauze by plain cloth. This will to some extent 
modify the looseness of the figure, and, what is quite as 
important, it will give it most clear definition. If we 
were to change direct from gauze to figure, the figure 
could not be clearly defined, especially if it were large, 
and its outline at all indented ; but by bringing in the 
plain all round it, it is formed just as upon an ordinary 
plain fabric. Another question arises also ; the figure 
must in all probability be bound down more or less. 
This binding will be more in harmony with the ground 
surrounding the figure if it be plain than it would be if 
gauze. We still, however, have the difficulty of want 
of fineness, not only in the plain which surrounds 
the figure, but more especially in the figure itself. If the 
figure is to be formed with the weft, we may resort to 


the expedient we have before mentioned — namely, 
putting more than one pick of weft in one shed ; and 
this we may vary according to the size of the figure or 
quality of the cloth. By doing so we shall not only 
make the figure " cover " better, but we shall add to the 
fineness and firmness of the plain portion without detract- 
ing from the openness of the gauze. If the figure is to 
be formed with warp, we may make a number of ends 
work together in the gauze, and then separate them in 
the plain, so making suflicient fineness, and making the 
warp figure cover the weft. We may also combine the 
two methods, a number of ends going together as one, 
and a number of picks going together as one in the gauze, 
thus increasing the fineness of the plain and the weight 
of the cloth to any degree, without interfering with the 
openness of the gauze, unless it be to make it more open. 
To begin with, suppose that we only want to increase 
the fineness in a slight degree in the warp, and to obtain 
the requisite increase of ends we let them work in groups 
of three, one crossing two — that is, one end working by 
itself, and two working as one along with it when form- 
ing gauze, but separating for plain, as shown in Plate 9, 
Fig. 12. 

When the crossing is of this description, the crossing 
threads may go all in one direction, or they may cross 
alternately in opposite directions, as shown in the figure ; 
but in either case when they separate they must form 
perfect plain cloth. In arranging designs upon the 
squared paper for this kind of crossing, perhaps more 
care is required than for any other kind, because the 
gauze threads being arranged in threes, and the plain 
having alternate ends alike, or, as it were, working in 
pairs, each end must be properly arranged, or a fault 
will occur in the plain. Now, if we form warp figures 
with the ends arranged in groups of three in this manner, 
and we do not separate the figure from the gauze by 
the introduction of plain, our warp threads will be laid 
in groups of three, which will look like one thick thread. 


Our object must be to distribute the threads ; then we 
have no alternative but to introduce some plain so as to 
effect this separation and distribution. The more general 
practice in figured gauzes is to arrange the threads in 
groups of four, two threads together as one throughout, 
and crossing each other in pairs, as shown in Plate 9, 
Fig. 13, and separating to form plain as before. This 
has the double advantage over working with three 
threads of making the cloth still finer, and giving us even 
numbers of ends to deal with at once. In such cloths, 
however, the mere increase in the warp threads is not 
enough usually, we must also increase the weft threads 
by putting two, three, or four together in the gauze and 
separating them in the plain. Now, in many instances we 
may desire that our figures should be not merely loose warp 
or weft on the surface, but, perhaps, bound in satin order, 
after the manner of damask or such figures, so that it is 
absolutely necessary to obtain fineness in the figuring 
portion ; but no matter how the figure may be formed, 
the almost invariable rule is to surround it with plain, 
so as to ensure the proper separation of the threads be- 
fore the figure is formed. This plain need not be more 
than a few ends, but it must be there. Another feature 
of gauze figures is that a true even outline cannot be 
formed as in patterns upon plain or satin ground, the 
threads running together in groups of, say, four ; all 
these four will cease to form gauze at the same time. 
One portion cannot be making gauze while the other 
portion is making plain or figure, therefore the outline 
will form a series of steps, not a steady, free line. This 
difficulty is even more apparent in flowing curves, the 
steps interfering very much, in some instances, with the 
beauty of the curve, and requiring the utmost care in 
reducing the interference to a minimum. 

Perhaps it will not be out of place here to say a few 
words upon the mechanical operations required in gauze 
weaving. Our excuse for doing so must be that 
existing treatises on weaving do not deal in a sufficiently 

Chap. VII.] THE USE OF DOUPS. 179 

complete manner with the subject, as applied to the 
looms of the present day. 

The general principle of gauze weaving is fully 
treated in the "Treatise on Weaving and Designing" 
before referred to, so far as the formation of gauze in 
small patterns and stripes is concerned ; and more fully 
in the excellent treatise on the " Art of Weaving,' ' by 
John Murphy. But Murphy's book was written before 
figured gauzes of the class now mostly used were deve- 
loped by the Jacquard machine, which was at that time 
quite in its infancy ; and, again, most of the fancy gauzes 
of which he treats are such as could only be woven in 
the hand loom by careful weavers, because of the com- 
plication of cordage, and the delicacy of manipulation 
required; and besides, such goods have been entirely 
superseded by the lace frame. 

In the " Treatise on Weaving and Designing," the use 
and construction of the doup heald are fully explained, as 
also the use of several doups along with healds for 
forming patterns in the gauze, but nothing is said of 
Jacquard harnesses for weaving figured gauze. If all the 
doup healds are attached to one heald shaft it will be 
obvious that they will all rise together whenever that 
shaft is raised ; and if we use two or even three heald 
shafts for the doups, it is evident that our orders of 
crossing will still be limited. But even limited though 
it be, under certain conditions we may make great variety 
of patterns ; for instance, such patterns as that shown in 
Plate 9, Fig. 11, can be woven quite easily, either with 
healds, or a common Jacquard harness and one doup. 
Although all the ends are not crossing at the same time, 
the crossing end is drawn through the doup and through 
one of the ordinary healds at the same time, but is 
carried under the thread with which it works between 
the common heald and the doup, so that as the common 
heald rises, it will take it to one side of its companion 
thread, and when the doup rises it will take it to the 
other side. ISTow, if we have half the threads drawn 


through the doup heald, and each through a separate 
common heald, so far as the pattern goes — as, for instance, 
in the pattern before us, there are eight separate threads — 
we shall require eight common healds, each thread drawn 
through one of them, and the first of each pair also 
through the doup. If the ends are crossed from the 
common heald to the doup, from left to right, whenever 
we raise the doup all those ends will rise on the right of 
the threads they cross ; then if the pattern is to be a 
combination of gauze and plain, as in this case, we lift 
the doup at every alternate pick of weft ; and if we wish 
to form gauze at the next pick we raise the common 
heald carrying the crossing thread, so bringing that 
thread up on the left of its companion, as shown in the 
figure ; and if we wish to form plain we raise at the 
second pick the thread which does not go through the 
doup. If we now substitute for the eight common 
healds, a Jacquard machine, where we can actuate each 
thread separately, and we place in conjunction with that 
a doup heald, and draw the ends through the doup in the 
manner described, it is very evident we can produce any 
variety of figure which is a combination of plain cloth 
and plain gauze, or we may make warp figures upon the 
plain, or further, we can combine plain gauze with 
twill, or make one end cross three or any number ; but if 
gauze is forming at some point throughout the piece we 
are necessarily confined to one pick in a shed, and to one 
end crossing at once, and all ends which do cross must 
cross at the same time and in the same direction. True, 
we may give some variety by using more than one doup, 
but still we should be confined to certain classes of figure ; 
then if we wish to figure freely, and at will, we must 
resort to what is known as a gauze harness — that is, with 
doups formed in the harness of the Jacquard machine ; 
this provides that each set of threads has its own 
separate doup, which may be brought into use at will, so 
enabling us either to vary the direction of our crossing, 
or the number between each crossing as we please. 


95. Combination with other Orders of Working 
than Plain. — We may now proceed to examine a little 
more in detail the combination of gauze with other 
orders of weaving. We have shown pretty fully how it 
may be combined with plain, and how the fineness of the 
cloth may be increased to almost any degree, and also, to 
some extent, how figures may be formed with warp or 
weft, or both. When we are figuring upon a gauze 
ground, we may vary both the form of the figure and the 
order of interweaving of the weft with the warp as we 
please, provided, as we have already said, we surround 
the figure with plain, so as to prevent the gauze from 
interfering with the outline, and the ends from running 
together in groups. Having done that, we are as 
free to figure or introduce twill, satin, or any other order 
of working, for the purpose of obtaining special effects, 
as if our cloth were an ordinary one with no gauze 
in it. Not only that, but we may vary our gauze ; we 
need not necessarily keep to the plain form of gauze 
working, either with single threads or a number thrown 
together, but we may adopt any of the forms of gauze 
such as those shown in Plate 9, to make the ground- 
work. It is not necessary that we confine ourselves to 
the gauze forming the ground of the cloth. Very 
frequently we may desire to produce a somewhat heavy 
cloth with a simple twill or satin ground, and in order 
to give a light appearance to it, we may introduce a 
gauze figure. Or the ground may be a figured one, 
such as a rich damask, in which case a small portion of 
gauze introduced into certain parts of it will give light- 
ness ; by this means some of the richest and most 
beautiful fabrics are produced. We often see in silk 
goods that some of the choicest fabrics are combinations 
of this character ; in fact, there is no limit. 

Quite apart from the combination of gauze with 
plain or warp or weft figure, we may also produce 
excellent effects by combining two orders of gauze 
working, one forming the figure upon the other, but, of 


course, in such cases the cloth must necessarily be a light 
one ; and if one portion of the gauze be much firmer 
than the other, the remarks which we applied to the 
combination of gauze with other orders of weaving 
respecting the proper distribution will apply to it also. 

Having examined the combination of gauze with 
plain to form figures, we may now examine the combi- 
nations with other orders of weaving, for the production 
of effects of different characters. We have already 
referred to the formation of plain stripes upon gauze 
ground, and pointed out the necessity of either putting 
a number of picks together in the gauze, and separating 
them for the plain, or having a greatly increased number 
of ends in the plain stripe. In many instances the latter 
arrangement is preferable ; by increasing the number of 
ends we may, by using these ends of a different colour 
from the ground ends, show a distinctly coloured stripe. 
The closeness of the warp threads will so completely hide the 
weft that the colour of the warp only will be seen ; conse- 
quently, the weft and the gauze warp may be of the same 
colour, and so show a difference between ground and stripe. 
We may also form checks on the same principle ; let the 
stripe in the warp be formed exactly as above described, 
and to form the cross stripe use thick weft, and instead 
of weaving gauze into the ground let it weave plain, so 
that the gauze warp will be hid in the thick weft in the 
same manner as the gauze weft is hid in the thick warp. 
This mode of working has also another advantage apart 
from the question of colour ; the contrast between the 
compactness of the stripe and the openness of the ground 
makes the pattern most striking. 

In some cloths more substantiality is required. 
Instead of forming plain stripes upon gauze ground, 
gauze stripes upon plain ground are formed, and with 
very pretty effect. We give one illustration upon Plate 10, 
where we have a drab ground and a pure white stripe ; 
of course we use white wef t only throughout, and white 
warp in the gauze stripe, the ground warp being drab, 










4 »» 


Plate X 


and so closely set as to completely cover the white 

Perhaps a more effective method of forming stripes 
upon gauze is to work the stripe as a satin. We can 
then give any degree of fineness to it, and present a 
perfectly smooth surface. Some of the most beautiful 
examples of striped gauze have the stripe worked 
in satin. This class of stripe also gives some pretty 
effects when a little figuring is introduced into the gauze 
ground, and nothing is lost if the figure be run 
over ground and stripe indiscriminately, and more 
especially if the figure be formed with weft satin. In 
such case it becomes necessary to put a number of picks 
together in the gauze, and also sometimes a number of 
ends also, so as to give sufficient fineness to the figure, 
and make it cover well enough. 

96. Combination of Gauze Figures and Figuring 
with extra Warp. — From what we have said, it will 
be clear that a great variety of effects may be 
obtained by combining various orders of weaving with 
gauze, and using only the material which takes part in 
the formation of the ground fabric; but, as in other 
classes of cloths, this variety may be very much increased 
by the introduction of extra material, warp or weft. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that we have not the 
same freedom for the use of extra material upon gauze 
cloths that we have upon simple plain or figured fabrics. 

In these cloths we may use extra warp or weft, 
or both, forming figure on the face, and then passing 
to the back, and being bound to the back of the 
cloth, instead of being cut away. We cannot do 
the same upon gauze — the open texture of the cloth 
would show it; we must either use only what will 
form the figure, or we must cut the waste away from the 
back. Again, for reasons we have pointed out in 
reference to ordinary warp or weft figures, we cannot 
very well figure upon the gauze itself, but must form a 
plain ground upon which to do so, in order that when we 


introduce extra materials to form figures, we must also 
figure to some extent with the ground material also. In 
speaking of figuring with extra material, at present we 
are speaking of it as an extra colour; in fact, as a 
means of giving more variety of colour to the pattern, 
but we shall shortly have to speak of the use of extra 
material for a different class of figuring ; however, in 
the meantime we must confine ourselves to the use of it as 
an additional colour. Figures made with extra warp, 
whether upon gauze or other grounds, must either be 
arranged sfcripewise, or the whole surface of the cloth 
must be figured. It does not necessarily follow that in 
all fabrics the figures appear to the eye as being in stripe 
form, even though they are so arranged, whether the 
loose material be cut away from the back or not ; but in 
gauze cloth unless the material be cut away from the 
back they must appear in stripe form. The figure, as 
we have shown, must be formed upon plain ground. If 
when it is completed we change the structure from 
plain to gauze, and leave the material on the back, 
it will be clearly visible through the gauze, and being 
visible as so much loose material it would not add to the 
appearance of the fabric ; then it must be cut away. 
Before being removed the same rule must be observed as 
in figuring upon ordinary fabrics, of binding it round 
the edges of the figure, so as to prevent it slipping out. 
Then if we wish to avoid the cutting off at the back, we 
must make the plain continuous throughout. Although 
this is a disadvantage, as to some extent crippling us in 
our power of producing patterns, yet we may obtain some 
very pretty effects in stripes; one simple example is shown 
in Plate 10. In this we give coloured and white stripes 
alternately, but we may have other colours at will, and 
not only each stripe of a different colour, but several 
colours in each stripe. One ready means of introducing 
more colour, without adding much to the weight, is to 
let the extra warp take the place of the ground warp in 
forming plain cloth under the figure. For instance, if 


we wish to have two colours in the stripe, whilst one of 
them is forming pattern on the face, the other is forming 
plain cloth under it, and they are constantly changing 
places according to the pattern, each forming figure and 
plain alternately. 

97. Figuring with extra Weft upon Gauze. — 
Figuring with extra weft upon gauze frees us from the 
necessity of making the figures in stripe form. If the 
weft be thrown all across the piece, we shall, of course, 
form stripes in that direction, but we may use the swivel 
shuttle, and so place our spots as we please, exactly as 
if we were figuring upon a compact cloth as shown in 
Plate 4, instead of upon a perforated fabric ; the same 
rule will, however, apply to these as to extra 
warp figures, of the cloth being plain under the figure. 
Indeed, no matter how we figure upon gauze, we must 
have plain cloth somewhere about the figure. We have 
no other means of distributing the warp and weft 
threads, or of securing the proper form of the design. 
When we are using extra weft, we have all the advan- 
tages and opportunities of ornamentation which can 
possibly be obtained, for we may not only combine figures 
with gauze, but we may combine all the forms of figuring 
— plain figure upon gauze ground, gauze figures upon 
plain ground, loose weft or warp figure, figures formed 
after the character of damask, or with extra material in 
any colour or any number of colours. We may make 
extremely light fabrics, or we may give to heavy fabrics 
the appearance of lightness by the introduction of gauze 
figuring. Sometimes very pretty effects are produced by 
figuring with extra weft of the same colour as the 
ground, but in different material, or in thicker yarn of 
the same material, so giving prominence to it merely by 
the thickness of the yarn. 

98. Combination of Gauze and Plush. — We have 
not yet, however, quite exhausted the means of orna- 
mentation of gauze cloths. In addition to the methods 
we have already described, we may introduce pile or 


plush figures. There are two distinct methods of doing 
this : first, when the pile is formed upon gauze, and 
second, when the pile is formed upon plain surrounded 
by gauze. Now as to the figures formed by pile upon 
gauze ground, we have the means of obtaining pretty 
and novel effects. The ends of warp which are to form 
the pile assist also in forming the gauze. Plate 9, 
Fig. 14, shows a longitudinal section, indicating the 
manner in which the threads twist round each other, 
and how the loop of the pile is formed. In this it will 
be seen that one of the three threads is constantly 
twisting round the other two, and at intervals one of 
these issues from the cloth and forms a loop. The 
manner in which the loop is made will be fully ex- 
plained in the next chapter ; we merely wish to call 
attention here to the fact of its being formed. On each 
side of the loop formation a weft thread is inserted, 
represented by the dot, and the crossing thread passes 
from one side to the other of both the loop thread and 
its companion. This constant twisting taking place, the 
loop thread is held firmly between the straight thread 
accompanying it and the crossing thread, so that what- 
ever loop is formed it is held rigidly just as it is made. 
Sometimes it is cut, so forming velvet pile ; and 
even though there is really no solid cloth under it, it 
will be so firmly bound between the ground threads that 
there will be no fear of its slipping out or being easily 
pulled out. 

In the second class, as it may be termed, of plush 
figures on gauze, instead of the pile being formed 
actually upon the gauze, plain cloth is formed by a 
portion of the threads and the pile by the other portion, 
as shown in the section, Plate 9, Fig. 15. By this 
system, all the threads share in the formation of the 
gauze, as in the other, but when we come to the figuring 
they are separated into two portions — one for the ground 
cloth and the other for the pile — so that a solid cloth is 
formed in the ground. The pile is not held so firmly as 


in the previous case, but still sufficiently so to make 
a serviceable article, and it has the advantage of making a 
more solid structure. There is necessarily more warp 
employed, more threads running together in the gauze, 
and consequently a heavier cloth. The principle of the 
formation of the pile is the same in every respect, but it 
issues from the plain cloth instead of from the gauze 
cloth. The pile may be cut or uncut, exactly as in the 
previous case. 

Beautiful effects are produced by this combination 
of gauze and pile weaving ; but of course the pile is 
of the same colour as the ground, when the figuring is 
distributed over the whole surface. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the plush is made to form stripes ; then different 
colours may be introduced, or, indeed, we may have 
coloured figures all over. But as the pile threads have 
to take part in the formation of the gauze ground, if we 
have two colours of warp the ground will necessarily 
partake somewhat of the colour of the figure, though 
modified by the presence of the second colour ; but 
where the figure runs in stripe form it may be totally 
different from the ground. To give variety to figured 
goods of this description, we may combine with the pile 
or plush figuring any or all of the other modes of 
figuring we have referred to. If the figure run in 
stripe form, we anay combine with it figures formed by 
extra warp, or plain, satin, or other figures in the 
ground. If they are distributed all over the surface, we 
may introduce extra weft and any other forms of 
ornamentation, and so make our patterns as elaborate as 
we please ; and again, instead of the gauze being an 
ordinary plain one, with any number of threads running 
together, we may use any of the fancy gauzes — such as are 
shown in Plate 9 — so that by the contrasts of colour, 
or such as are produced by the variety of structure in 
the fabric, we may ornament to an unlimited degree, 
and in all cases produce pleasing effects. 

99. Lappet and Whip — net Figures on Gauze. We 


have now but two forms of ornamenting gauze cloths to 
refer to, both of which have to some extent been an- 
ticipated — first by lappet threads, and second by- 
threads crossing over wide open spaces. We give an 
illustration of lappet figuring in Plate 9, Fig. 16, 
and of the crossing threads over open spaces in Fig. 17. 
In the first we have an ordinary plain gauze ground, 
with single threads forming figures by being stitched 
as it were over the surface ; this stitching is done in 
the manner described at Art. 85. By this mode of 
figuring considerable variety may be produced, but 
all by a series of single threads. An appearance 
of solidity might be given to the figure by crossing 
and recrossing in quick succession, say at every 
pick, but generally such effects as shown here are more 
aimed at. This mode of figuring is seldom combined 
with others, being usually applied to fabrics of very light 
texture. The same remark will apply to the class of 
figuring shown in Fig. 17, but the designs are of a 
stiffer character. This arises from the fact that each 
thread is arranged to be brought into the cloth only at 
two certain points in relation to the warp threads, 
though their positions in relation to the weft may 
be varied — that is, the number of picks inserted be- 
tween each point of interweaving may be varied, but 
the number of ends cannot, in the same piece of cloth ; 
therefore the figures must partake of a stiff character, 
this stiffness only being modified by a varied arrange- 
ment of the order in which the ends are drawn through 
the doup, and consequently the manner in which they 
are manipulated. However, both lappet and this form 
of figuring will partake more or less of the stripe character, 
though the stripe may be almost hid by the variety 
of lines introduced. 

100. The Materials from which to make Gauze. — 
One necessary part of the design of gauze fabrics is a 
proper consideration of the structure of the threads 
from which the cloth is made. From the nature of the 


cloth, its open perforations, and the necessity for the 
pattern being very clear, threads of a smooth even 
structure, with little or no loose fibre on their surface, are 
best adapted. Silk being a long continuous smooth fila- 
ment is best suited of any class of yarns. Next come 
cotton and linen, for although they may have a little 
loose fibre on the surface of the thread, yet it will 
be very little, and not likely to interfere much with 
the clearness of the pattern. We may also use worsted 
yarns, but they will not give the same clearness of 
pattern as the other three, especially if not made 
from the finest wools. Woollen yarns are quite 
unsuited for making gauze cloths, as are also the 
coarser cottons and tow yarns ; though, if well twisted, 
they may be employed in making the heavier goods when 
gauze is combined with twill or other forms of working, 
and where clearly defined patterns are not needed. 
It is not only so as to obtain clearness of pattern that 
smooth even yarns are required in making gauze, but it 
is necessary to have a strong thread in the warp at any 
rate. When the crossing takes place considerable 
strain is thrown upon the threads, and also great 
friction ; probably the latter is most likely to do 
harm. If the thread is not strong and well twisted, 
it will soon give way under the friction, and if it 
has much loose fibre on its surface, there will be a 
great amount of friction in the threads passing each 
other, and also in passing and repassing through the eye 
of the heald, so that the smooth thread is as neces- 
sary to the successful operation of weaving as to the 
clearness and definition of the pattern. In fine woollen 
yarns with the thread sufficiently twisted as to give 
strength to the yarn to bear the work it has to do in 
the process of weaving, some excellent effects are pro- 
duced by the combination of gauze with other orders of 
working, chiefly with twill in stripe form, but the texture 
must be very open, the threads being set a sufficient 
distance apart to reduce friction to the lowest point, so 


as to obtain all the ease possible in weaving, and even 
then the pattern of gauze will not be well denned, but 
will be partly hid by the loose fibre on the thread. 
Perhaps it is this want of definition which gives the 
charm to this class of fabric ; the perforations are not 
clearly marked, there is a kind of hazy mystery about 
the pattern which probably renders it more attractive 
than if it were well made out, and what adds to the 
attractiveness is that the character of the gauze is 
quite in keeping with the body of the cloth. At any 
rate, some really charming fabrics are made in this man- 
ner, but they require great skill in the use of the material, 
because of its soft fibrous character and the amount of 
friction thrown upon it in the process of weaving. 

101. Madras Muslin. — It may be necessary to refer 
to and point out the chief characteristics of some 
fabrics which bear a strong resemblance to gauze. In 
the first place, there are several varieties of extremely 
light texture, which at first sight, from their very light- 
ness, would lead one to suppose they were gauze, but 
which are not necessarily of that material. The 
term gauze is often applied indiscriminately to all 
cloths of a light open texture, without regard to 
the mode of interweaving of warp and weft ; but this 
habit is very misleading to the technical student. 
One class of fabrics, which gives pretty effects upon 
a light cloth, is known as Madras muslin. This is a 
very light texture indeed, with a figure formed by the 
introduction of a thick thread of weft into the ground 
and then cut away where no figure is formed, so that 
it is really an alternation of thick, or moderately thick, 
and very thin, light cloth. Similar effects are also 
produced in fancy coloured goods, two or even three 
colours of weft being employed to form figures, some- 
times one weaving plain into the ground cloth, and the 
other figuring upon it, and sometimes both entering 
partly into the ground cloth, and figuring alternately ; 
and, as in the previous case, when no figure is being 

Chap. VII.l NET WEAVING. 191 

formed the extra material, which would otherwise go to 
the back, is cut away. In the arrangement of pat- 
terns for such fabrics we should be guided by the 
same rules as for figures upon ordinary fabrics ; the 
only difference being that the ground cloth is of a much 
lighter texture, and the figuring weft in a great measure 
goes in when the figure is formed, as an ordinary ground 
pick, or partly as a ground and partly as a figuring pick. 
There must be proper care as to the distribution of 
figures, and all the other precautions which usually 
accompany the arrangement of them. We must not 
omit net and lace in our comparison of fabrics, often 
confounded with gauze. 

102. Net. — Whip net, a class of fabric formerly 
made, but now almost entirely superseded by lace, was 
really an extension of gauze weaving of a very 
complicated character. The pattern given in Plate 9, 
Fig. 17, may, perhaps, be called a species of whip net, 
though of the simplest kind. What is termed the 
whip or crossing thread, is made to pass over a greater 
distance than in ordinary gauze weaving, and fre- 
quently they not only cross what might be termed 
straight threads, but also cross each other, the crossing 
of the weft threads between them at the point or points 
of intersection keeping them in their places. Some- 
times these weft threads would be so thin as to be 
scarcely visible to the naked eye without careful exami- 
nation; and the whip threads being thick, all the 
appearance of lace would be obtained by the variety of 
crossing and interweaving. Although whip net produced 
some beautiful fabrics, it has been superseded by bobbin 
net and lace, partly because of the superior figured 
effects which can be secured, but mostly on the ground 
of economy. 

Bobbin net, as its name implies, is formed by having 
a series of bobbins, which are made to travel to and fro 
in a pair of " combs," or bars. A series of threads are 
placed vertically, and the bobbins, which are extremely 


thin, are passed through between them from one comb to 
the other ; they are then returned, but not through, 
between the same threads. A lateral motion is given to 
the combs, or bars, termed " shogging," so at to move the 
threads to a different position in relation to the bobbins, 
thus causing them to pass through between different 
threads at each movement. The effect of this is to cause 
the bobbin thread to twist round the straight, or what 
may be termed the warp thread ; and as bobbin and 
thread are moved at each passage of the bobbin, the 
bobbin thread is passed round each warp thread in 
succession, as shown in Plate 9, Fig. 18. Sometimes 
small spots are formed upon net by one thread 
traversing a number of times across the " mesh," but 
these are not large or elaborate, and call for no special 
skill, except so far as applies to regulating the move- 
ments of the machine. 

Net very nearly approaches lace in its structure, but 
in the latter more elaborate designs can be produced. 

103. Lace. — It is not our intention to deal at length 
with designing lace for two reasons : firstly, lace 
is not strictly speaking a woven fabric, and secondly, 
because to do justice to the subject it would require a 
complete work in itself. We shall, therefore, only refer 
to the general character of the structure of the fabric, 
and the manner in which patterns are formed, so that we 
may be able to compare with other fabrics. 

If we examine the cheaper kinds of lace curtains, we 
shall see readily how the fabric and design are formed ; 
and we can then understand more easily the formation of 
other kinds of lace. In the curtains referred to there is 
first a straight warp thread ; along with this is another, 
which when no figure is being formed remains with the 
straight thread ; these two have constantly a third thread 
\ twisting round them. When figure is to be formed, the 
j figuring warp thread passes from one straight thread to 
the next, is made fast to it by the twisting thread, then 
returns to its former position as shown in Plate 9, Fig. 19. 

Chap. VII.] LACE WEAVING. 193 

This passing and repassing of the figuring thread 
is carried on with each one all over the fabric, according 
to the pattern to be produced. 

This is, perhaps, the commonest kind of lace, but it 
will serve to convey an idea of how lace is made. In 
other kinds of lace those threads which we have spoken 
of as straight, and which in the common laces 
remain straight, are drawn out of their course by the 
varying strain put upon them. A similar kind of 
twisting action takes place with the bobbin thread, but 
the warp threads are varied in their thickness. They 
are made to traverse varying distances, and are bound to 
different ends by the twisting of the weft or bobbin 
threads ; this, coupled with the varying tension, causes 
them to be drawn, and to make any pattern that may be 

It will be apparent that lace gives by far the greatest 
scope for producing ornamental open texture. The whole 
fabric is formed of such texture ; the shape of the 
openings, the lines made by the thick or the twisted 
threads are capable of infinite variation, so that the 
texture may be as light, as open, and as varied as ever 
the designer may please. 

In net we cannot have the same variety; the "mesh" 
will be of the same form throughout, most generally 
hexagonal, and any figuring will be limited, usually to 
small spots ; while in gauze weaving we have something 
which may be said to come in between the two, and is 
capable of producing effects which cannot be obtained in 
either net or lace, whilst, of course it cannot give the 
effects which lace can. In gauze cloths, as we have 
shown, we may vary the weight and texture in any 
degree, and at the same time ornament by the texture. 
We may combine gauze weaving with any or all of the 
other forms of weaving, and form such patterns as we 
like. In fact, the combination of gauze with other 
textures affords more scope for the production of 
ornamental fabrics than any other class of fabric or 



texture. In lace there is not this power of combination, 
and we are therefore limited to the production of light, 
open textures. 



104. The Classification of Pile Fabrics.— We have 
now but one kind of fabric to deal with, so far as the 
ornamentation in the structure is concerned, and that is 
the class known as plush or pile fabrics. This class 
differs in appearance from all others, having on its 
surface a series of short threads which issue from the 
cloth, and present the ends of the fibre to the eye, or 
the threads issuing from the cloth in the same way form a 
series of loops. "We will examine each section in detail, 
so as to see to what extent the principle of orna- 
mentation can be carried in it, and also its combination 
with other orders of weaving. 

It may be said sometimes that pile fabrics are divi- 
sible into two classes, cut and uncut, or cut and loop pile, 
but that is not a sufficient division. They are separable 
into two kinds more distinct than cut and uncut 
— namely, weft and warp pile ; that is, when the pile is 
formed by weft, or when it is formed by warp. 

105. Weft Pile. — Let us deal first with weft pile, 
and examine it in all its forms. It consists in the 
first instance of a series of weft threads bound into the 
ground cloth at intervals, and floating over the sur- 
face loosely after the manner of a figure. This loose 
material is then cut by using a long bar of steel made 
into a knife at the end. This knife is extremely sharp, 
and is provided with a guide, which is simply a narrow 
piece of thin sheet-iron doubled so as to form a groove 
which fits on the knife. As it leaves the point of 


the knife, the iron is welded into one piece, and is 
tapered off to a point, more or less sharp according to the 
length of the plush to be cut. This point is inserted 
under the weft floats, and as the knife is pushed forward 
it raises the weft up to the knife, which severs it, so 
forming the cut pile on the surface of the cloth. Take, 
for example, the section of a velveteen in Fig. 87, 
where two picks of weft are shown, one of ground and 

Fig. 87. 

one of pile. The ground weft forms with the warp quite 
a plain fabric, while the pile weft passes under one end 
only and over seven. By inserting the point of the guide 
of the cutting knife under this pile thread and pushing it 
forward the tapering form of the guide will raise it up 
until the guide just holds it tight, when the knife coming 
in contact with it severs it, as shown at b, a being an 
uncut loop, just as it comes from the loom. Thus the 
pile is formed. 

106. The Structure of the Cloth, and Binding 
Weft Pile. — We must consider the structure of the cloth 
most carefully in order to determine the best mode of 
binding the pile into the cloth, so as to make it serve the 
most useful purposes, and also the best distribution of the 
pile over the surface of the fabric. The ornamentation 
of the fabric may be left for after consideration, or we 
may deal with it as we refer to the different modes of 
structure, as well as the uses to which pile-surfaced 
fabrics may be applied. 

The binding of weft plushes into the fabric to secure 
firmness is one of the most important questions in con- 
nection with their manufacture ; for if it is not firmly 
bound it will not, in the first place, permit of its being 
cut — the knife will pull it away from the cloth \ and in 
the second place, even if it were cut, it would constantly 


be coming out in wearing. There would be no power 
to resist friction, and these are matters which must 
not be neglected. The firmness of the binding is in 
some degree dependent upon the compactness of the 
fabric, the firmness with which the threads forming the 
ground texture are bound and beat together, and perhaps 
more especially the closeness of the weft threads, so that 
the pile weft which is introduced between them shall be 
gripped, as it were, in a vice. It is also in a measure 
dependent upon the manner in which the pile weft is 
interwoven into the ground. 

Very frequently the pile weft passes round only one 
end of the warp, as shown in Fig. 87. Then it may be 
said of such that it can make no difference how this bind- 
ing point is distributed, because it will have to depend 
entirely upon the pressure of the ground picks on each 
side of it to secure it firmly in the fabric. The fact, however, 
that numbers of patents have been taken out for different 
modes of binding so as to make the pile more firm, and 
even when only passing under one end, proves that there 
must be something more than the mere pressure of the 
freft threads, or that this pressure may be increased by 
die mere arrangement or distribution of the pile. Let us 
take the case of a pattern of velveteen we have now 
before us, examine the manner in which it is made, 
and how it might be made, and see what the effect 
would be in each case. Fig. 88 is the plan of the cloth. 
It will be seen that there are four picks of 
■nnnnnnn P^ e we ^> eacn floating over seven ends and 
DnSDDnHH binding under one only. Then there is a 
■nSBSnSH plain pick, the four pile picks are repeated, 
"nnnSnc an ^ there is another plain pick. Those 
ddddcdbd ^ wo pl aul picks will form a perfectly plain 
Fig. 88. ground. Now, with regard to the pile 
picks, an examination of them will show 
that the four taken together would be equal to one 
plain pick — that is, every alternate end is occupied 
by them, and the same four ends are passed under by 


the plain pick immediately following. Then the four 
pile picks are exactly repeated, and the next ground pick 
passes under the ends which have been passed over, and 
over those which have been passed under. Thus the first 
four plush picks would constitute as it were one complete 
plain pick, the ground pick a second, and the next four 
plush picks a third ; so that we have an exact equivalent 
to three picks of weft in one shed, or under and over the 
same ends, and one in the contrary shed, or under those 
which have been passed over before, and over those 
which have been passed under. Now those three picks 
coming together as one, or, more correctly speaking, the 
nine picks coming together as three in one, will form one 
very solid mass when pressed together by the crossing 
of the warp for the next pick, and the driving of the 
latter up to the cloth, and each will help to bind the 
other into the fabric. The nine also becoming one, will 
allow a considerable number of picks per inch to be put 
into the cloth, so that we shall have weight, closeness of 
the pile, a solid compact cloth at the back, and the pile 
bound firmly into it. But there are other ways of look- 
ing at the subject. We may obtain too much weight of 
cloth if we beat the pick up close enough to make the 
pile firm. We have been speaking as if we were beat- 
ing the weft as close as possible in the process of weaving, 
but if the cloth we have produced is too heavy, and we 
simply reduce the number of picks per inch, and retain 
the same arrangement of binding, we shall loosen the pile 
just in proportion as we reduce the picks. 
That will not answer our purpose. How- □"□"aSaa 
ever much we reduce the weight we must nnaSaaaa 
keep the pile firmly bound. Then suppose SdSdSdSS 
we adopt the arrangement shown in Fig. nnnniiS 
89 ; this would have the effect of making BHSnBaSB 
each set of four plush picks and the ground Yig. 89. 
pick following it go together as one, so that 
instead of being practically three picks together as one, and 
then a single one as in the previous case, they would be 


double picks throughout. This would possess two ad- 
vantages : first, the plush would be even more firmly 
bound, because each set of plush picks is followed 
by a plain pick passing over the ends they have 
passed under, and two picks going together as one 
would make the whole order of interweaving firmer 
for the same weight, or equally firm for less weight; 
and secondly, the pile would be binding with all the 
warp, instead of only with every alternate end, as in the 
previous case, so giving more even distribution of ten- 
sion upon the ends than before, and consequently a better 
constructed fabric. 

Suppose, again, that the plush picks are arranged in 
their order of binding, that one portion of them goes into 
the same shed as the ground pick which precedes them, 
and the other portion into the same shed as that which 
follows them, they would require to be arranged so that 
equal quantities went into each. And even then they 
could not be held with the same degree of firmness as if 
they all went into one shed, because the pressure upon 
them by the ground picks would not be so evenly distri- 
buted, there would be a slight degree of waviness given 
to the ground weft picks which would make them hold 
one portion of the plush more firmly than another. 

Binding the plush with one end of warp is sufficient 
only when the weft is so closely beaten into the cloth as 
to exert great pressure upon the pile, and hold it by 
pressure only ; and in a large number of 
"■nSnaDDaa instances there is not enough of this 
HSnDDDDDnS pressure; in fact, it may be said that 
DDnBDBanna j n the majority of plushes there is not. 

'□□□□□5 Then when such is the case we must 
HSaBaSBaaS resort to other means or methods of 
ddddddHSHS binding; we must let the plush weft 

Fig. 90. interweave with more of the warp 

threads. We have a plan in Fig. 90 of 

a velveteen similar in its arrangement to that shown 

in Fig. 88, but having the plush pick interweaving 

Chap. VIII. ] VELVETEENS. 199 

with three warp ends, instead of one only. There are 
five plnsh picks to each ground pick ; the pattern 
occupies ten ends instead of eight, but as the plush weft 
interweaves with three ends instead of one, the length 
of pile is just the same, floating over seven. The first 
five plush picks go under the same ends as the second 
ground pick, so do the second five, so that five complete 
picks go under every alternate end, and only one — the 
first ground pick — over them ; thus it is equivalent to 
having five picks together in one shed, and only one in 
the other. Now this plan will possess all the advantages 
pointed out in reference to Pig. 88, with the additional 
one of the plush being even more firmly bound by inter- 
weaving with more warp ends. The back of the cloth 
will present less of the appearance of a plain fabric than 
even will that of Fig. 88, but it will form decided ribs, 
and there will be more strain thrown upon that half of 
the warp under which each plush pick passes. Certainly 
this strain will be somewhat neutralised by the thread 
having to pass over one only, but it will still be greater 
than the other portion of the warp. If 
we arrange the plan as shown in Fig. 91 5H IdddgHdR 
we shall neutralise this, and give more SDCiDnnnaSa 
plainness to the back cloth, and more dqdddqSdSB 
firmness to the binding. There is, per- DSnDDnna 
haps, one advantage, or so-called advan- dSHdHcdddS 
tage, in the arrangements shown in ddddddHSHS 
Figs. 88 and 90 over those shown in Fig. 91. 

Figs. 89 and 91 — namely, in imitating 
warp pile. In the latter the pile runs distinctly 
in rows across the piece, because of its being formed 
with wires, as we shall show ; and the arrange- 
ment of Figs. 88 and 90 will give more of the same 
appearance than Figs. 89 and 91. In each of the 
examples we have given there are four plush picks to one 
ground pick, and these four are distributed over the 
whole surface ; but it must not be taken either that there 
are always four plush picks to one ground pick, or that 


the plush picks between each pair of ground picks are 
distributed over whe whole surface ; the number of plush 
picks will be regulated to some extent by the density of 
the pile required, and the distribution which takes place 
between each pair of ground picks will be dependent 
partly upon the number of plush picks to one ground 
pick and partly upon the length of the pile. For 
instance, if we were only having two plush picks to one 
ground pick in such a pattern as shown in Fig. 88, we 
should only occupy two ends out of the eight, while with 
the same proportion of picks in Fig. 90 we might occupy 
every alternate end, so that the order of binding will 
also interfere with it. 

The patterns we have given in Figs. 79 to 82 are 
what are commonly known as "tabby" velvets, or 
velveteens; the term "tabby/' as used in the trade, being 
synonymous with "plain." And in such patterns it 
appears to be a general practice to occupy only every 
alternate end, and in most cases also 
■nnnnnnnDDnnDD ^° preserve the arrangement shown 
R8S8SHBHBH8BBR ™ Figs. 88 and 90, of having one of 
DDnnnnSaDDD'an the ground picks to go into the same 
□□□□■□□□□□ shed as the plush on each side of it. 
□DDDDnBBSnnnSn There are some exceptions, and some 
□□■□□□□HaaBBRB of these are amongst the patented 
SDSnSDDDaSnDaH patterns. One feature of the perfect 

ffiSBBBHBBB H*Img of plush into the ground, 
nnnnnnnDanSaDn which has been made much of by 
■nc dBBSB practical designers of fabrics, is that 

□■■DannDaHgnna the ground pick succeeding the plush 

SSBSBaB! SB P icks sha11 be contrary to those plush 
nHnBaBaDSaBaBa picks in the order of interweaving at 

SaBBBBDnaaBSB the P oint where the J bind into the 

Fig. 92. fabric. This is shown in Fig. 92, 

where the ground is not quite plain, 

but nearly so, and the departure from plain is evidently 

due more to a regard for the proper binding of the plush 

than from any desire to produce a pattern on the 


ground fabric. This is a most ingenious arrangement, 
and effectually secures the perfect binding of the plush 
into the cloth. The same principle of arrangement is 
applicable to plushes of any length, or with any number 
of picks of plush between the ground picks, or with the 
plush binding into any number of warp threads. 

" Tabby n velveteens, or velvets, are only suitable for 
the production of light fabrics. The pile may be 
tolerably dense, but the ground cloth cannot be very 
heavy, because of the order of interweaving preventing 
the threads coming very close together ; and as the pile 
cannot well occupy more than every alternate warp 
thread between the ground picks, the number of them 
issuing from the cloth in a given space cannot be so 
large as if there were more ground picks per inch. Then 
if we wish to increase the bulk or thickness of 
the cloth we must substitute twill or satin for ddddbd 
the " tabby." If we do that our binding of ■■dbbd 
the plush cannot be so firm or perfect if it only ddddbd 
passes under one end, but if interweaving with ddbddd 
more than one end it may be equally perfect. 
We have in Fig. 93 a plan of a velveteen with 
a three-end twill ground, and two picks of plush to each 
ground pick. In this it will be seen that again the 
principle of occupying every alternate warp end in 
binding the plush is employed, and also that every 

alternate plush pick falls in a different position 
□dddbc * n relation to the ground twill, and conse- 
■□□8c quently that one half the plush will be more 
ddddbd 1 firmly bound than the other. Again, in Fig. 94 
bdddc we nave another pattern upon a three-end 
□□□□■□ twill ground, but with three plush picks to 
■dddc on ^ ground pick. In this, only one-third of 
Fig. 94. "the pile will be imperfectly bound. Now all 

these are patterns which have been regularly 
used, yet they are not free from defects in their 
binding. They have probably depended more upon the 
mere quantity of the material which the fabric con- 


tained for the firm binding of the plush than upon any- 
thing else, but this is not satisfactory ; each pick should 
be equally perfect in its binding to ensure a good cloth, 
but with a twill ground, and more than one plush pick 
to one ground pick, this is difficult to attain when the 
plush passes under one end only, but if the plush inter- 
weaves with more than one end, then it can be bound 
perfectly. We showed in Fig. 9 1 the method of binding 
into more than one end upon plain ground, and 
also the best mode of making the pile firm. Precisely 
the same rule will apply to twill grounds, only that 
instead of interweaving with three ends it would be 

probably with four, or even 
perhaps more, after the 
manner shown in Fig. 95. 
In this section it will be 
seen that the pile issues from the cloth between two ends, 
which are passed over by the succeeding pick, and which 
are in consequence pressed close together at that point, 
and so tend to cause the pile not only to be firmly bound, 
but also to stand more erect on the surface after it is cut. 
In most pile fabrics the systems of binding shown would 
be quite sufficient to hold the pile quite firmly in the 
fabric ; but sometimes the nature of the material, such, 
for instance, as mohair, renders it desirable to bind it 
more firmly into the cloth. Then, if the ground be 
plain, the pile may bind into as many ends as is desired, 
and a number of picks going to form one, always being 
arranged so that the point where the first pick, say, 
issues from the cloth, the next pick enters it so that the 
pick formed by the succession of plush picks shall be 
one complete plain pick, just as the five picks in Fig. 90 
form two complete picks. 

107. Distribution of Pile. — We now come to the 
question of the distribution of the pile, and here there are 
two distinct features to consider — first, equal distribu- 
tion, so that the whole surface of the fabric shall be 
equally covered ; and second, the arrangement, so that 


what are termed courses for the knife shall be regular. 
Although, as we say, these are two distinct features, 
and both often exercise the mind of 'the designer, yet if 
the first condition be properly complied with, the second 
must be. Let us see what this distribution means. 
In the patterns Figs. 88 and 89 the four plush picks 
are arranged in what is commonly known as four-end 
satin, or satinette order. Each alternate end is occu- 
pied by a plush pick, but not in consecutive order. In 
this particular case they might have been arranged in 
consecutive order, as what may be termed the pattern is 
complete between each ground pick, but if there had 
been only two plush picks and one ground pick, then 
there would have been a tendency to show a twill, and 
this would not only have been apparent at the back of 
the cloth, but also on the face of the plush. Again, in 
Fig. 90, the plush is arranged in almost what may be 
termed a twill order, though not following on consecutive 
ends, yet from the manner in which they issue from the 
cloth, and the " pattern " again being complete between 
the ground pick, no twill will be visible. Generally, 
the best arrangement of plushes is that of a satin order, 
the number of changes being regulated by the length of 
the plush, and the number of plush picks required to 
complete " one round of the pattern." If we keep our 
plush distributed equally in this manner, we at the same 
time also insure regular courses for the cutting knife ; 
the pattern being in regular order, the distribution per- 
fect, we are of necessity bound to have perfectly straight 
courses. But if this regularity is not preserved, if the 
binding is distributed irregularly over the fabric, then the 
courses will be irregular, and the cuts will be " heavy 
and light " — that is, in one course there will be more 
material to cut through than in another, and so irregu- 
larity in the quantity of pile on the surface and difficulty 
of cutting properly will be produced. 

108. The Effects of Cutting Plush.— Cutting the 
plush has quite as much to do with the ultimate appear- 


ance as the regularity and perfection of the binding, 

though in the short plushes of which we have been 

speaking not so much difference can be made, perhaps, as 

in longer plushes. We have already explained how the 

plush is cut by the knife and guide. Now, this guide 

plays a most important part ; its first function is to raise 

the thread up to the knife, but it must also determine 

exactly where the knife shall cut that thread, in the 

middle of the float or elsewhere. This is governed by 

the size of the guide itself ; if the' pile is all to be of equal 

length — that is, the float of weft to be cut exactly in 

a the centre — then the 

\ ff\ — / r guide must be just of 

i A^3GC^b(^ such size that it will 

Fig. 96 fill the space between 

the weft and the cloth 
of one float only. Take, for instance, Fig. 96, where two 
weft floats are shown binding at two different places, as 
would be the case of any two picks in a plush pattern. If 
the knife-guide is of the proper size, it will pass under only 
one of these at once, but if it be not large enough, it will 
pass under two or more, as at the point a. In that case, 
instead of the thread being severed into two equal parts, 
one will be much longer than the other. Instead of 
being cut between the two binding points of one thread, 
it will be cut between a binding point of each thread, 
and so produce long and short plush intermixed. 

109. Imitating Skins of Animals with Plush. — In 
such fabrics as velveteen, and others where the pile is 
very short, this would be a fatal objection ; the surface 
of the pile would present a most irregular appearance, 
but where the pile is of considerable length it may 
be an advantage. Yery frequently plushes, more espe- 
cially weft plushes, are made to imitate the skins of 
animals. Most people are aware that a great many ani- 
mals have next the skin a short close fur, covered 
with a longer hair, the hair lying over the fur and 
serving to turn off the wet, while the fur serves to keep 


the animal warm. In imitating such furs two lengths of 
plush must be formed. Sometimes this may be got suffi- 
ciently well merely by the cutting, using a guide so small 
as to catch two or even more picks, after the manner 
shown in Fig. 96, and so producing long and short. If 
three picks at different points of the pattern are caught 
by the guide, there will of course be three different 
lengths of plush, and so on. Sometimes, however, this 
does not give sufficient difference in the length of the plush, 
and the floats of the weft are varied — in fact, two dis- 
tinct plushes are combined upon one ground ; say, for 
example, one having a float of an inch in length, or even 
more, to form the long hair, and the other having a float 
of only a quarter of an inch. In cutting these, one of 
two courses must be adopted : either the long plush must 
be cut first, with a guide which cannot enter the short 
plush, or both must be cut together with the short plush 
guide. In the first case the long hairs may be equal in 
length, or unequal, according to the size of the guide used ; 
in the second case the long plush will be all equal, and 
very nearly of the full length of the float, from one bind- 
ing place to another, because the guide for the short plush 
will be so thin, and the cuts so frequent, that the long 
floats will always be cut nearly close to the binding point, 
the short end of it being just of the same length as the 
short or under plush. If two different materials be used, 
as fine wool for the short, and silk or bright mohair for 
the long plush, some pretty effects may be obtained, 
and very correct imitations of the skins of some animals 
made. Sometimes even three materials, each forming a 
different length of plush, may be employed, and more 
variety given to the fabric. In making imitations of 
skins, the nature of the material employed to form the 
pile must of necessity be properly considered; for instance, 
in making imitation sealskin, smoothness and brightness of 
the fibre are essential conditions. Again, if the pile is 
required to stand erect upon the surface of the cloth, 
unless it is very short pile, the hair or fibre of which it 


is made must be very strong, so that it can retain its 
erect position. 

110. Density of Pile. — Another question now arises 
— namely, the density of the pile. If it must stand erect 
it must be tolerably dense; that is, there must be 
a great many pile threads issuing from the cloth in a 
given space, so that they can support each other. To ob- 
tain this density of pile the number of plush picks to one 
ground pick must be properly proportioned to the length 
of the pile and to the number of ground picks per inch. 
It may to some extent be obtained by the use of thick 
pile weft, but this must not be carried too far, else it 
will appear rough and coarse. In obtaining density by 
an increased number of plush to one ground pick, we 
must not carry the proportion too far. Fig. 90 will 
represent what should be the limit ; in fact, it goes 
almost too far. The ground picks must be sufficient to 
form a fabric of such weight and strength as will carry 
easily the pile to be put upon it. Perhaps the pile weft 
may take part in the actual formation of the ground 
fabric. Sometimes it does ; then, of course, more strength 
is given to the structure. These are all matters in which 
the designer can only be guided by the circumstances of 
the case immediately before him. Empirical rules cannot 
be laid down, and if an attempt were made to lay such 
rules down they would only be misleading. 

111. Special Effects produced by Yarns. — The same 
remark will apply also to the preparation of yarns for 
forming pile to produce special effects. For instance, in 
the imitation lambskin the yarns must be made from soft 
fine wool, with good felting properties ; the softer it is 
spun into the thread — so that it will hold together to be 
cut — the better. Then after it is cut it must undergo a 
teazing process to separate the fibres as effectually as 
possible; then they are felted until they form little 
" cots " all over the surface of the cloth. Again, in the 
imitation of clog and other skins, the yarns must undergo 
a preparation which will give them the proper amount of 


wave or eurliness ; and in some cases the subsequent 
processes of finishing assist or intensify these effects ; 
however, all such must be left to the ingenuity and skill 
of the designer, and a due consideration of the effect he 
desires to produce. 

112. Corduroys. — Plushes, in addition to being dis- 
tributed equally over the surface, are often made to 
produce patterns upon the ground cloth, such, for instance, 
as stripes, which when they occupy a small space are 
commonly called cords, or, when they run the length 
of the piece, corduroys. They may also run across the 
piece, or in diagonal form. Figures are also formed. 

In the small cords or corduroys the principle of 
binding referred to in velveteens is usually employed, 
only that the binding of the plush is not dis- 
tributed over the whole surface, but confined to g£3[ 
a few ends. We have in Fig. 97 a simple cord J3"B"B 
on a plain ground cloth, which is known as a j H _^ 
"velveret on tabby back." In this the bind- Fig. 97. 
ing of the plush weft is confined to two ends 
throughout, so that when cut up between the bindings 
the pile will form a rib or cord. In Fig. 98 we have 
the same cord on a three-end twill back, other- 
■o wise known as the i( Jeanette " back. In these 

□■cqnn two patterns there is nothing which calls for 
dbbdbb special remark, except the formation of the 
■DDnna cord : it is one of the most simple which can be 
' made. In Fig. 99 we have 
* ' one on a four-end twill ground, ggggggH°BgS" 
which is a more perfect form of cord. nan"^Ez:!EE 
These cords, to give the best effects, EBi|Ez|iE3!8 
should be rounded on the top ; that is, gEEEzbEEddbS 
the pile forming the centre of the cord n?"EizzEE"5S 
should be longer than that forming the SSBBbbBBbbdB 
sides, so that it will stand above it and ^ig. 99. 

give a rounded appearance. In the 
patterns given in Figs. 97 and 98 this will take place 
to a slight extent, but in pattern Fig. 99 it will be more 


marked. Take the two plush picks which occur between 
each ground pick. The first pick has a float of four and 
then of six ends alternately ; the second pick is the same, 
but the long float of one follows the short one of the 
other. The cutting will sever both threads in the centre 
of the float, so that the longest ends of pile will be in 
the middle of the cord, and the shortest ones at the 
sides or edges. This, then, will give a greater degree of 
roundness than in Figs. 97 and 98. Although the 
pattern in Fig. 99 will give a rounded cord, in many 
cases it is desirable to have even more roundness and 
prominence imparted to it ; this may be done by giving 
three or four different lengths of float to the pile weft, 

and generally arranging them so 

RHRHHSR5SSHHRRHR that the longest are slightly pre- 

SaSBBaBBaS dominant in quantity; such, for 

B8iiBBSiiinBB8BBSBB instance, as that in Fig. 100, which 

nnaaDBDBDIinanana wrmlrl nrorlnrp a wrv bold card 

DaBBSaBBBaSBaaBc In this pattern one of the two plush 

■DDSSnDBSnBSSnBS P icks forms the ed g es of the cord 
Fig. ioo. on -ly> while the other forms the 

intermediate and the centre, thus 
giving more threads issuing from the centre of the cord 
than the edges. This would make the cord very full up 
the centre, but as part of this would fall towards the 
edges instead of remaining perfectly erect, it will supply 
proper roundness to the cord. Cords of this description 
may be made of varying widths, and with any degree 
of roundness \ and they may not only be made as 
plain straight cords, but as fancy ones, and of varying 

113. Diagonal Cords. — It is not necessary that we 
confine ourselves to cords running either the length of 
the piece, or simj)ly across it, parallel or at right 
angles to the edges, but they may run diagonally, and 
the weft which forms the pile rib may either be intro- 
duced to form the rib solely, or it may take part in the 
formation of the ground. After the consideration we 



have given to straight cords it will not be necessary to 
say much about diagonal cords : the principle of structure 
and binding applies equally to both ; the roundness of 
surface on the cord required in one may be equally 
desired in the other, and the mode of obtaining it would 
be the same. In fact, instead of binding all the plush 
picks upon a given number of ends, they would be dis- 
tributed upon all the ends composing the fabric, and 
following each other in a diagonal direction. 

114. Figured Plushes. — Figures may be formed with 
weft plush in the same manner as cords or diagonals, 
simply by binding the plush weft into the cloth where 
figure is to be formed, as though the whole surface were 
to be covered, and where there is to be no figure, either 
let the plush weft enter the ground as part of it, or float 
loosely over it. In the latter case, the loose material 
which is not forming pile will have to be cut away. 
Some very pretty effects may be produced in this 
manner, as also in the formation of figures by different 
lengths of pile, or by the use of different colours of pile 
weft. In fact, we have in this system of ornamentation 
the means of producing 
great variety of effect, as 
well as most useful fabrics, 
not only for wearing but 
as warm articles of clothing. 

115. Chenille.— Che- 
nille is another class of 
fabric, if we may so term 
it, which though used for a 
great variety of purposes, 
may be classed among weft 
plushes. The mode of its 
manufacture is by weaving 

weft into a warp having its threads set in small groups a 
short distance apart. After the piece of cloth is woven, 
the whole of the weft is severed between each group of 
warp threads, thus cutting the whole fabric up into 


i mil 

l ii 

|il i i 


-,. — , — . 

■ L11LM-- 

ii ii i i i ' 


■ -r ■■ 


• iiiini" 




'— ttttiT: 



-=ffi : ±: 




1 1 


Fig. 101. 


narrow shreds, as in Fig. 101. Here the warp threads 
are shown in groups of three, and are intersected by 
the weft in regular order ; sometimes these warp 
threads weave with the weft in perfectly plain order, 
but in the best formed chenilles they are woven as 
gauze, thus holding the weft more firmly in the warp, 
making the cutting more easy and certain, and making a 
more durable article. After the chenille is cut it is 
twisted, all the three threads of warp being thus formed 
into one, with the short threads of weft projecting from 
it all round, making as it were a fringed thread. This 
twisting tends to hold the weft fringe still more firmly 
in the threads of warp, so that if in the plain woven 
fabric it can be held sufficiently firm to resist being 
pulled out in cutting, it will become more secure after 
the twisting operation. 

116. Sham Plush. — One of the uses to which chenille 
is sometimes applied is the production of what may be 
termed sham plush ; that is, it is woven into a cloth as 
weft, and the loose fringe formed on the thread, as before 
described, projects itself through between the warp 
threads, and so gives the fabric the appearance of a plush. 
If it is woven into a plain pieoe, there is, of course, the 
same quantity of plush on each side of the cloth, but if 
thrown pretty loosely on the face it will present very 
much the appearance of an ordinary plush, and can be 
made much more economically. One thing which is 
necessary in making cloths with chenille weft is to have 
the warp threads pretty wide apart, so as to give the 
loose fringe an opportunity of projecting itself between 
them ; if put into a closely set fabric it would not have 
an opportunity of doing this, and would consequently be 
nearly, if not entirely, lost. Chenille, if judiciously 
used, gives some very pretty effects indeed, and at a 
cheap rate compared with what can be done with other 
kinds of plushes. 

117. Warp Pile. — We now come to the question of 
the formation of pile or plush on the surface of 


fabrics with warp. The principles involved in the 
formation of pile of this description are similar to 
those of weft pile, the warp taking the place of weft, 
but the modus operandi is different. In the formation 
of weft pile two wefts and one warp are employed ; in 
warp pile, two warps and one weft. In the former the 
cutting takes place usually after the cloth comes from 
the loom, in the latter usually in the loom, or the pile 
may be left uncut and form loops ; so that we have two 
forms of warp pile, commonly known as " cut " and 
"loop" pile, or "cut" and "Terry" velvet. Whether 
the pile be cut or uncut the structure of the cloth is the 
same ; it is merely a question of using the knife or not. 
We will first examine what is known as common velvet 
— as there as several modes of forming the pile, or rather 
of binding it into the cloth — so that we may obtain a 
more ready and accurate idea of the general principles 
upon which the binding is effected. 

118. The Structure of Velvet. — In the first place, 
velvet is formed by the pile warp issuing from the cloth, 
passing over a wire, and then passing into the cloth again, 
where it is interwoven, so as to secure it firmly. We 
may bring the whole of the pile warp at once over the 
wire, or we may bring only a portion of it, but in either 

a a 

"Pig. 102. 

case we must/ consider the binding, so as to properly 
secure it ; and in the event of bringing only a portion 
over the wire at once, we have the double consideration 
of binding and proper distribution. Suppose we first 
bring the whole of the pile warp over each wire, as 
shown in the section in Fig. 102, we bind the pile 
threads into the ground in the order of plain weaving 
between each wire. In this section the loops are shown 


just as they are formed by the wire, except at a, where 
they are shown as cut. . Now, one feature of this section 
must strike the reader : the pile issues from the cloth 
after a pick is inserted, passes over the wire, and returns 
to the cloth before another pick is inserted. To secure 
the pile properly in the cloth it must pass under the 
pick which precedes the wire, and also that which 
follows it, and the ground thread next to it must pass 
over both these picks, so that virtually both are in one 
shed. It must not be supposed from this section that 
the pile thread necessarily forms part of the ground, 
that is, that the thread seen here and the ground thread 
accompanying it are the only two representative threads 
of the cloth; but a ground thread accompanies the pile 
thread in the order of interweaving in the ground, so 
forming a double thread throughout, except in passing 
over the wire, when they separate. Thus this arrange- 
ment secures the pile firmly into the fabric, and the 
double pick has also another advantage — namely, that the 
pile threads issuing from and returning into the cloth 
between two picks which are contained between the 
ground threads in the same shed, and which are beaten 
as closely together as the thickness of the pile warp will 
permit, are he]d firmly together, thus supporting each 
other and standing erect upon the surface of the cloth. 
This method of binding the plush gives all the security 
to the binding which is required, but it will form distinct 
rows or ribs across the piece. If the pile warp be thick 
enough, and spread itself out sufficiently on being cut, 
these rows will be hid, but if the cloth be doubled back, 
each row will at once disclose itself. This is certainly a 
characteristic of all velvets, and is the feature we 
referred to in Art. 106, which is imitated by the 
velveteen when two sets of plush picks and one ground 
pick pass into practically the same shed, thus giving a 
sort of ribbed effect to the back of the piece, and showing 
the plush in rows. If we are making our cloth with fine 
ground weft these rows would be so close together as not 


to be at all objectionable ; in fact, not visible to the 
unassisted eye. Again, in the process of weaving we 
must consider the effect of weaving in this manner. If 
the warp be a smooth thread and not over thick, as silk, 
for instance, we may raise or depress all the pile threads 
at once, without fear of " choking " the shed, but if the 
pile threads be very thick, or not of the smoothest 
nature, or too closely set, then there would be a probabi- 
lity of " choking " as they pass between the ground 
threads, and probably also the rows and the openings 
between them would be too decided. Then in such cases 
we must divide the pile warp into at least two portions, 
and bring each portion over the wire alternately. In 
doing so we alter the structure of the cloth. Practically, 
each portion of the pile warp is bound into the fabric, 
just as shown in Fig. 102, but as we have tivo portions 
to consider, each to be bound in a similar manner, the 
order of succession of ground picks in their relation to 
the ground warp must be altered. A section is given in 
Fig. 103, showing the method of binding the warp when 
bringing only half over the wire at once. The black line 

represents one portion of the pile warp, and the dotted 
line the other portion, the ground end being represented 
by the double line. In this, as in the previous arrange- 
ment, the pile issues from and returns into the cloth 
between two ground picks which are in the same shed, 
being held so exactly in the same manner. Again, on 
returning into the cloth it passes under one pick, over 
two which are in the same shed, and under another, 
when it again issues from the cloth; so that practically 
each portion of the pile weaves into the ground in precisely 
the same way as in the previous case — namely, three 
ground picks and a wire, two of the picks being practically 


one, so far as this portion of the pile is concerned. Then 
the other half of the pile warp issues from and returns 
to the cloth between the next pair of picks, thus making 
a loop at every two picks of the cloth, but two picks 
always going into the same ground shed, being separated 
by the pile warp as it issues from and returns to the 
cloth. Such being the nature of the structure when the 
pile warp is brought to the surface in halves, there must 
be a better distribution of the pile. The firmness of the 
binding and the texture of the ground cloth will be 
practically the same in both methods of working, but in 
the second the rows of pile will not be so decided, their 
greater frequency, and the fact of only one half the 
pile coming to the face at once, tending to equalise the 
distribution, and give a more regular appearance to the 
pile, more especially if thick yarn, or yarn made from 
strong fibres, be used. 

What we have said has more especial reference to 
velvet, or cut pile. If it be uncut, forming loops, so 
far as the binding or the pile running in rows is con- 
cerned, there is no advantage in either system, because 
the pile will always stand in rows, just as it is left by the 
wire, but by bringing half the warp up at once we can 
get the rows closer together ; and although each row of 
the pile brought over each wire cannot be quite so much 
in quantity as if all the warp be brought up at once, yet 
the increased closeness of the wires, and the fact that we 
can have the warp more closely set, will enable us to form 
a greater quantity of pile on the cloth. 

119. Pile formed without Wires. — Loop pile may 
be formed without the use of wires, but its appearance is 
not so regular; although formed in rows, the loops do 
not stand perfectly straight, nor exactly equal in height ; 
thus they intermix with each other, and give a very 
rough appearance to the fabric. This kind of pile is 
most used for bath towels and similar articles. 

120. Ornamenting Pile Fabrics. — We must now turn 
our attention to the ornamentation of pile fabrics. This 


we may deal with under two heads : first, the decoration of 
pile fabrics, and second, the decoration of fabrics ivith pile. 

The first idea which naturally occurs in connection 
with the ornamentation of fabrics is the use of colour. 
In ordinary velvets, whether . cut or uncut, colour can 
only be used under certain conditions, and consequently 
can only give some specific character of ornamentation, 
and not be used in a general way. The pile formed on 
the surface of the fabric entirely covers the ground cloth; 
then any ornamentation which may be visible must be 
formed with the pile warp. If we introduce variety of 
colours into that they must necessarily run in stripes ; 
figures could not be formed. The warp consists of a 
number of threads laid side by side. If these threads are 
of different colours, a given number of one colour, and a 
given number of another, when woven into the fabric, 
and forming the pile on the surface, exactly the same 
stripe must be presented on the cloth as in the warp, so 
that our power of ornamentation in that direction is 
limited. Then our chief power of ornamentation must 
be by forming patterns in or with the pile itself, in a 
great measure without the aid of colour. When we 
speak of the ornamentation of pile fabrics, we naturally 
conclude that the whole surface of the cloth is covered 
with pile, or at least that the greater part is so covered, or 
that some ornamentation is formed in the pile itself, or 
by its being formed in varying quantities on the fabric. 

First of all, we may produce pattern by the pile 
varying in length. When such is the case it will usually 
be in stripe form across the piece, because the difference 
in length is produced by wires of different sizes being 
inserted under the pile warp during the process of 
weaving, so that it would not be very convenient to form 
figures in this manner. Of course figures can be so 
formed, but the expedient is not very frequently 
resorted to. 

The next means of ornamentation is by the combina- 
tion of velvet and terry — that is, cut and uncut ; and this 


is very frequently employed, figures of terry being formed 
upon a velvet ground, and vice versd. The same warp 
is employed in the formation of both kinds of pile, but 
two kinds of wires : one provided with a groove for guiding 
the "trevette," or cutting knife, or having a knife formed 
at its extremity so that it cuts its way as it is being 
drawn out, and the other being a plain wire which when 
drawn out leaves the loop intact. ISTo prettier effects can 
be produced than by this combination of velvet and 
terry; although both are of the same material, and of 
the same colour, the contrast between the loop and 
the cut fibres marks the pattern very distinctly. One 
great advantage of this mode of ornamentation is that 
the texture of the ground cloth is not at all affected, the 
interweaving of the pile with the ground remains the 
same; the same amount of pile is formed all over the surface 
of the fabric, the cut and terry simply taking the place 
of each other, so that the usefulness of the article is not 
impaired, either in its strength or in the wearing surface, 
there being no inequalities whatever in the pile. In fact, 
this kind of figuring bears the same relation to pile 
fabrics that damask does to ordinary figured cloths. 
Figures may be formed upon velvet grounds by ceasing 
to form pile at intervals ; for instance, taken in its 
simplest form, if we weave say half an inch of velvet in 
the ordinary manner, then cease to insert wires, but 
continue to let the pile warp interweave with the ground, 
we should form plain cloth, having two picks of weft in 
each shed, and with two ends going together as one. We 
are now assuming that the pile is formed by bringing 
half the warp at once over the wire ; then we should 
have alternate stripes of velvet and plain cloth. But 
instead of forming simple stripes we may let our plain 
cloth form figures, and the figures may assume any form. 
Then we are ornamenting by the introduction of patches 
of plain cloth, such patches taking the form of figures, and 
being distributed according to the fancy of the designer, or 
the special effect intended to be produced. When figures 


are formed in this manner, the plain portion of the fabric is 
a little more loose in texture than when pile is formed. 
As will be seen on referring to the sections of velvet in 
Figs. 102 and 103, when pile is formed, the warp separates 
the two ground picks, which otherwise go into the same 
shed, but if pile is not being formed, the pile warp simply 
lies under them along with the ground warp, so that 
there is nothing to separate the two picks, consequently 
they will lie closer together and occupy less space. 
Now, if one portion of the fabric has two picks together 
as one, and another portion has the same two picks 
separated by a series of double threads, one must of 
necessity be firmer in texture than the other. Perhaps 
this difference is not such as to have a material effect in 
the majority of fabrics, yet it is necessary to be aware of 
its existence, since if the pile warp be very thick, or the 
figures be not equally distributed, it may be detrimental 
to the structure, and a knowledge of the possible cause 
of defects enables us all the more effectually to guard 
against them. 

In addition to irregularities in the texture, the wearing 
surface is also irregular, the velvet standing up as a pro- 
jection on the surface of the fabric; but for the purposes 
to which such goods are usually applied this is not a 
matter of much importance. Plain figures of this des- 
cription upon velvet grounds are about the most simple 
mode of ornamentation, though a very effective one, the 
design produced being of an embossed character. In fact, 
common velvets are frequently made to imitate them by 
being embossed, but these are not so good for wearing 
purposes as when they are properly figured, because that 
portion of the pile which has been flattened by pressure 
to form the figure will become loose with friction, and 
gradually rise to almost its former position and so destroy 
the pattern, whereas if the pattern be woven in, nothing 
can destroy the clear definition of the figure except the 
actual wearing away of all the pile of the ground — a cir- 
cumstance which cannot often occur. 


121. Combination of Pile and Figuring with extra 
Material. — Fabrics figured in this manner are like those 
figured with velvet and terry, necessarily all of one 
colour ; but variety of colour may be obtained by the 
introduction of extra material, after the manner pointed 
out in reference to ordinary fabrics, and in this way 
some of the richest possible effects produced ; the 
density of colour which is always a characteristic of 
velvet, and the variety of light and shade produced by 
the pile, being wonderfully relieved, and giving the most 
beautiful effects by the introduction of bright or contrast- 
ing colours. There is probably no class of ornamentation 
applied to fabrics which gives such magnificent results as 
combinations of velvet with coloured figures. 

122. Pile or Velvet Figures. — We now come to the 
ornamentation of fabrics with plush or pile, and what 
has been said of the ornamentation of pile will practi- 
cally apply to this, in so far as structure of the cloth 
and wearing properties are concerned ; the mechanical 
operations required for the formation of patterns are also 
the same. In fact, we may almost sum up the difference 
by saying that in one case the plain or figured ground 
cloth becomes an ornament to the pile surface, the latter 
of which predominates largely in quantity ; and, in the 
other case, the small quantity of pile which forms a figure 
becomes an ornament to the ground cloths. The fabric 
which we wish to ornament with velvet figures may be 
anything — plain, twilled, satin, figured, or gauze. It is 
made on the ordinary principles. The warp which is to 
form the pile may take part also in the formation of the 
ground ; it may form figures in the ground, or may be 
dealt with in any manner when not forming velvet \ then 
when it is required to form velvet it begins to interweave 
with the ground cloth in the ordinary manner of p]ain 
velvet, and is also passed over wires in the same manner. 
Sometimes the velvet is formed in stripes ; when such is 
the case there is no trouble with the arrangement of the 
design, further than to provide the pile ends in the warp, 


and consequently in the arrangement of the pattern upon 
paper, at the places and in such quantities as are 
requisite. The stripes may be plain or figured ; when 
figured, the pattern is produced by simply passing such 
ends over the wire as will form the figure desired, and 
leaving the rest in the ground cloth. If the figures be 
distributed over the whole surface of the cloth, at greater 
or less intervals, then they must be distributed equally ; 
in fact, the same rules must be observed as for any 
ordinary figures. Plush figures upon a ground fabric 
differ from plain figures upon a plush ground in one 
respect — namely, that the figure may be different in colour 
from the ground, more especially if the figures be small, 
because then the pile warp would be treated as extra 
material, and thrown to the back when not forming pile. 
Of course, in plain figures upon plush ground, a similar 
effect may be produced by the introduction of extra 
material, as we pointed out for the formation of extra 
spots ; but this is not so general a practice as introducing 
extra warp to form plush figures. Then again we may 
combine extra material for the formation of other figures, 
after the manner of ordinary cloths between the plush 
or velvet figures, or we may figure with the ground fabric. 
In fact, we may combine with velvet figuring all other 
forms of ornamentation which can be applied to fabrics, 
and our velvet figures may be either cut, or terry, or 

123. Plush Figures upon Gauze Ground. — We have 
already referred to the formation of plush upon gauze 
ground, but that will call for a few more words here. 
As it is shown in Plate 12, Fig. 14, the pile is formed 
upon the gauze ; that is, the twistings of the gauze threads 
take place between the loops of the pile, so that really 
there is no solid ground fabric under the pile. This is a 
very pretty and useful mode of working, but will only 
serve for very light fabrics, and does not permit of any 
other mode of ornamentation being applied along with it. 
Now, we may frequently wish to combine plush figuring 


with some other upon gauze ground, or plush figuring with 
gauze upon some other ground. Suppose, for example, 
that our plush is to be surrounded with plain upon a 
gauze ground; then in the first instance we combine plain 
with gauze in the usual manner, then, as plush is to be 
formed, we cease the plain working and adopt that which 
will give a proper ground for the plush, and proceed to 
the insertion of the wires. This mode of working, in 
addition to enabling us to make a heavier cloth than if 
the plush is upon the gauze direct, will also make the 
plush appear better by being more dense. Again, the 
plain cloth may predominate, and figures be formed alter- 
nately by plush and gauze, or we may further call the 
use of extra material to our aid ; so that we may be said 
to have here all the different methods of ornamentation 
at our command at once, to apply as we please. There 
is, perhaps, nothing which produces such striking effects 
as the combination of plush and gauze, whether any 
other order of weaving be combined with them or not ; 
the contrast between the density of one, and the open 
perforated character of the other, always giving a very 
decided character to the whole design, and, at the same 
time a very pleasing one. 

To the designer there can scarcely be any more 
pleasing duty than the designing of figured velvets ; he 
has so much scope for the display of artistic merit, and 
also of complete technical knowledge of the structure of 

124. The Production of Special Effects in Plushes.— 
In dealing with warp pile so far, we have confined 
ourselves chiefly to velvet, or fabrics having a very short 
pile ; but there are numerous other kinds of pile fabrics 
in which the pile varies, though in principle of structure 
they are practically the same. But although they are 
the same in structure, yet great variety of effects is 
produced by varying lengths of pile, by special prepara- 
tion of the pile warp before being put in the loom — 
such as printing, curling, waving, &c. — similar to the 

Chap. VIII.] 



operations we referred to in connection with weft pile; 
and, again, special effects are often produced in the 
process of finishing after the fabric leaves the loom, 
such as tinting to produce the imitation of skins of 
animals, and other effects. 

125. Brussels Carpets. — Figuring with colour upon 
pile fabrics involves a different arrangement of the 
structure and also of the pile threads, unless the pattern 
is printed. We might take as an illustration Brussels 
carpets, in which well-defined patterns are formed by a 
variety of colour, and see what is the principle of 
structure, and how far it will apply to others. The pile 
itself is formed exactly the same as in ordinary or terry 
velvet — namely, by the insertion of wires under the pile 
threads — but the process of selection of the threads is 
different. In weaving ordinary velvet we bring either 
the whole or half the pile warp to the surface over each 
wire, but in Brussels carpet we may be said to have a 

Fig. 101. 

series of duplicate ends, each of a different colour, and 
from these we select one, according to the pattern we 
require. Again, in ordinary velvet the pile warp inter- 
veaves into the ground just the same as the ground warp, 
except at the point where pile is formed ; but in Brussels 
carpet it does not, but is contained as a straight thread 
in the body of the cloth when not forming pile. Take 
the section Fig. 104; the ground warj) is represented by 
the lines a, and the weft by the dots, the three colours of 
warp by b, c, and d. Now the ground cloth is plain 
in one sense. If the ground warp threads be separated 
from the pile warp, and considered only in relation to 


the weft, they will form a plain cloth with two picks in 
each shed, but taken as they stand, the ground picks are 
separated by the pile warp. In fact, the pile warp is 
held between the ground weft, and intersected by the 
ground warp, so that if no pile or loops were to be formed, 
we should have a plain cloth with a stout packing in the 
middle, the packing threads being perfectly straight, and 
taking no part in the formation of the cloth, except to 
give bulk to it. Between every pair of ground warp 
threads there is one thread of each colour of pile warp 
which is to be employed. Then, for the formation of the 
pattern, one of each of these sets of pile threads is 
raised between each pair of ground picks and passed over 
a wire, it then returns to the cloth, and if required to 
form the next loop is again raised, and so on, until its 
own portion of the figure is completed, when it remains 
in the cloth until again wanted to form figure. In the 
same manner the pile threads are treated ; they are lifted 
over the wire to form a loop whenever the arrangement 
of the pattern calls for their presence on the surface, and 
as soon as that portion of the pattern is completed they 
return to the cloth, and continue to form the body. 
From this it will be seen that although there may be 
three, four, five, or six colours, and consequently as many 
separate pile threads between each pair of ground threads, 
only one of each set is brought to the surface at once, so 
that there is always the same quantity of pile on the 
surface, and the same substance in the body of the cloth, 
no matter what the pattern may be, or how frequently 
the pattern changes from one colour to another. 

Then the advantages of this mode of structure are 
that we have uniform surface and body of cloth ; and we 
have pattern formed by colour only, and any amount of 
variety in the pattern will not affect the structure or 
quality of the cloth. The pattern being formed by 
differently coloured threads coming to the surface in suc- 
cession, is very clear and well defined, and the whole of 
the pile material being embedded in the body of the cloth 


makes the fabric both bulky and soft. One peculiar 
advantage, from the useful point of view, which Brussels 
carpets possess, is that each thread which comes to the 
surface to form a loop, being only one of a number, is 
well embedded with the rest in the body of the cloth, so 
that when the foot is placed upon it, it is pressed into a 
naturally elastic body of material, which serves as a cushion 
for it, enabling it to give way under the pressure of the 
foot, and also by its elasticity to spring back to the 
original position, thus reducing the wear and tear con- 

126. Tapestry Carpets. — Another class of carpets 
which are made to imitate Brussels are known as 
tapestries. The structure of the cloth presents some- 
what the appearance of Brussels, but instead of there 
being a number of threads together of different colours 
between each pair of ground threads there is only one, 
and that is printed so as to form the pattern. In fact, 
each pile thread is printed in colours according to the 
pattern to be formed, proper regard being paid in the 
process of printing to the length of warp which will be 
required to form the loop, and also for bending round 
the weft. Then they are put together in the warp in 
their proper order, and, as we have said, woven after the 
manner of Brussels carpet, but one printed thread 
serving for a number of coloured ones. This is a most 
economical method of producing figured carpets, but of 
necessity does not produce so serviceable an article as 
that which it imitates. There is no substance in 
the body, except what is known as the backing, and as 
this consists of stout linen, there is not the same elasticity 
as in the worsted body of Brussels carpet, and therefore 
not the same tendency to reduce wear and tear. 

The structure of the Wilton carpets is similar to that of 
Brussels, but the pile is cut, or practically the difference 
is the same as that between cut and terry velvet. 

127. The Varieties and Properties of Plushes. — We 
have now enumerated the principal kinds of plush or pile 


which are made. There are manv modifications of these 
in use, in the production of different kinds of fabric for 
different purposes, but these are modifications of minor 
details generally: the. principle of structure is not affected 
by them. There are numbers of patent plushes, all 
claiming some advantage over others, but still, the 
improvement is usually in some trifling alteration of 
binding or distribution, or perhaps more frequently in the 
method of production, but the general principles we have 
referred to cannot be far departed from without impairing 
the structure of the cloth, or even if that is not actually 
done, there can be little advantage gained. One very 
economical method of making velvets, which has been 
attempted over and over again with varying degrees of 
success, has been within recent years brought to something 
like a state of perfection — namely, weaving two cloths 
together, and the pile passing from one to the other ; they 
are then severed in such a manner as to leave a proper 
proportion of pile upon each cloth, thus dispensing with 
the use of wires, and consequently reducing the cost of 
production very materially. But even in this, the 
principle of structure of each cloth remains practically 
the same as if they were woven with wires ; it is only a 
modification of the means by which the article is manu- 
factured. With respect to the utility of pile fabrics, 
little need be said more than we have already pointed 
out. From the nature of the surface, as well as the 
structure of the body of the cloth, they must necessarily 
form very warm articles of clothing, the closeness of 
texture and the intermixing of the loose fibres of the 
pile all tending to assist in retaining warmth. They are 
also soft and pleasant to the touch, and altogether pleasing 
as articles of dress or furniture ; one remarkable feature 
to which we have already referred being the richness of 
colour, and the variety of light and shade which they 
present, more especially when arranged in folds, the undu- 
lations placing the loose fibres in so many different 
positions to reflect the light, and this variety of reflections 


giving richness and variety to the colour and lustre of: 
the whole fabric. 

In their wearing properties plushes are also very 
valuable, there being scarcely any fabric of the same 
weight which will prove more durable, so that they 
combine all the properties which go to make cloths 
valuable — richness and beauty with utility. 



128. The Considerations involved in the Structure 
of Fabrics. — We have dealt pretty fully with the 
different principles of structure of fabrics and their 
ornamentation ; and it will perhaps be desirable now to 
examine a little more fully some of the considerations 
involved in their structure, to make a comparison of the 
different classes and styles of fabric, and also to deal 
with some forms of ornamentation which we have not 
touched upon, and the special method of their application. 

We may first recapitulate generally some of the 
points discussed in the earlier chapters, so that we may 
take a more comprehensive view of the whole. 

Dividing, for the moment, all fabrics into two distinct 
classes, without entering into their particular structure, 
we may say that the one is intended for useful and the 
other for ornamental purposes. Taking the purely useful, 
we have the question of strength before us, the necessity 
of the fabric being able to bear strain, or friction, or both ; 
then we have to regard it as an article of clothing, its 
power of retaining the warmth of the body, or of resisting 
climatic influences. In the first case one of two con- 


siderations comes in; either we must have a strong, 
compact, well - formed thread, of which to form the 
cloth, or the. threads must be so interlocked with 
each other as to make the whole fabric as it were 
one solid mass. If the threads are of such a nature 
that all the fibres of which they are composed are spun 
intimately together, forming a smooth -surfaced, even 
filament, then they will stand separate from each other 
in the fabric, and its entire strength will consist of the 
multiplication of so many units ; and if the cloth is to 
bear a great strain, more especially if this strain is likely 
to be localised, either each individual thread must be 
very strong, or strength must be obtained by having a 
great number in a small space. The strength of individual 
threads maybe obtained in two ways: either by having it 
constructed of fibres of great strength, or by having the 
fibres well twisted together. Combined with the strength 
of the thread, the order of interweaving of the two sets 
of threads of which the cloth is composed must be taken 
into account, and, as we have shown of ordinary fabrics, 
the plain cloth, or that in which the two sets of threads 
interweave alternately, is the strongest for the quantity 
of material which it contains (we are leaving gauze out 
of the question, as being an ornamental fabric). If the 
capacity of the fabric to bear strain is to be in one 
direction rather than another, as in the warp or weft, then 
that material must predominate, and we arrive at the class 
of cloth showing a rib in one direction or the other. We 
have here, then, the general considerations of strength 
immediately before us, and although we have spoken only 
of plain cloth, the remarks will apply equally to 
twilled or other fabrics, in which we have resorted 
to a different order of interweaving, either for the 
purpose of obtaining greater weight or for ornamentation. 
In cloths formed of the kind of thread we have 
spoken of there will be openness of texture, and the 
size of the openings between the threads will be in 
the direct ratio to the diameters of the threads in a 


cloth where warp and weft are equal in quantity. Thus, 
to obtain closeness we must increase the quantity of 
either warp or weft. To do that is to increase the 
weight. Now, if our cloth is to be a light one, and we 
wish it to be still of a close texture, we may obtain it to 
some extent by altering the structure of the thread. 
Instead of having a smooth, even thread, we may have a 
considerable amount of loose fibre on the surface ; these 
loose fibres will help to cover the interstices, and in the 
process of finishing, if the fibres of one thread be made 
to interlock with those of other threads, the compactness 
of the fabric will be increased. But this is not all ; the 
interlocking of fibres gives additional strength. Not 
only do the warp threads support each other, but the 
weft threads interlock with them, and the whole fabric 
becomes more compact, not merely as far as closeness of 
texture is concerned, but as regards tensile strength, and 
also the power to resist friction. Thus we have here a 
very intimate relation between the structure of the 
thread and the strength of the fabric, as well as its 
closeness of texture \ so that it is evident the character 
of the thread is an item we cannot afford to ignore in 
determining the structure of the cloth. 

Apart from the question of material or structure of 
thread, we must now consider how these conditions can 
be obtained in the structure of the cloth only. If we 
resort to twilling — that structure which most nearly ap- 
proaches to plain cloth — we obtain in the first place 
greater closeness of texture than in an ordinary plain 
fabric, because of the necessity for introducing a greater 
number of threads, to compensate for the looser order 
of interweaving. We obtain also greater strength for 
the same reason, and also of course increased bulk. 
Then, again, this increase may be in the weft, in the 
warp, or both, according to the character of the twill we 
employ. If we take satin cloths — one form of twilling — 
we obtain all we require in strength and closeness of 
texture in one direction only — that is, by an increase of 


either warp or weft, in number of ends or in thickness, 
more generally by the increase of ends. Our next alter- 
native is a resort to double cloths, which gives us the 
means of increasing weight, strength, or closeness of 
texture to any degree. Then we have here, in the struc- 
ture of the threads, and the structure of the fabric, in 
simple form, all that we require to enable us to make the 
cloth fulfil all the conditions of usefulness. 

129. Ornamentation of Fabrics by the Use of 
Colour. — Now with respect to ornamental fabrics. As 
we have shown, we may ornament with colours, with 
patterns formed upon the fabric, or in the structure of 
the fabric itself. We will first turn our attention to the 
question of ornamenting with colours, not with a view 
to dealing with the theory of colour in general — that has 
been already done many times in works on decorative 
art, including, of course, textile fabrics, in a much more 
complete manner than could possibly be attempted here 
— but to consider it in its connection with structure 
of the fabric, and see what will affect or interfere with 
its use, and how far this interference may necessitate 
the ornamentation assuming some particular form or 

It has been pointed out in a previous chapter that 
the ornamentation of plain cloth must be by the use of 
colour, or by the predominance of either warp or weft, so 
as to produce cords running the length of the piece or 
across it ; but this predominance of one of the materials 
will also affect the use of colour. When weft and warp 
are equal in plain cloth, we may introduce coloured 
threads into either one or the other with a fair chance 
of their being visible on the surface. Then we may form 
either stripes or checks, just as we use coloured threads 
in the weft or warp, or both ; and the variation in those 
threads, in both colour and quantity, will give us great 
scope for the display of ingenuity and taste. True, the 
patterns always run in straight lines, yet they may be 
made both pretty and effective by proper regard being 

Chap. 1x7] OftNAMENTlKG WITH COLOURS. 229 

paid to variety of line and colour. But it is only when 
warp and weft are equal, or nearly equal, that we may 
use colour in both warp and weft at will. We will sup- 
pose, for example, that the warp is predominating very 
largely, that the number of ends per inch greatly exceeds 
the number of picks ; then the weft will be completely 
hid, and whatever colour it might be it would not be 
seen on the surface of the cloth ; so that in such a case 
we are precluded from using variety of colours of weft, 
and consequently, the cloth being plain in structure, we 
can only apply colour to form stripes running in the 
direction of the warp, seeing that the only coloured ends 
which can be visible must be in the warp. On the other 
hand, if we are making a corded cloth, with the cord 
formed in the warp, then the weft would predominate 
largely in quantity, though not necessarily in the thick- 
ness of the threads ; but the closeness of the weft picks 
would completely cover the warp, so that whatever might 
be the colour of the warp, it would not be seen, at least 
not sufficiently to permit of a pattern of coloured ends 
being formed by it. So that whether the warp or weft 
predominate, we can only use colour in that portion of 
the fabric. Precisely the same rule will apply to twilled 
or satin cloths, and perhaps even in a more marked degree 
than in the majority of plain cloths. In either twill or 
satin cloths, where the warp or weft is brought much 
to the surface, it also predominates largely in actual 
quantity also ; so that the other material is thrown abso- 
lutely to the back of the fabric, and is not seen at all on 
the face. Thus we can ornament only in the direction 
of the threads which are on the face, and we are there- 
fore necessarily confined to stripes. 

Although we cannot form anything but stripes by the 
use of colour in fabrics where either warp or weft pre- 
dominates on the face, and when we confine ourselves to 
the material which forms the ground or body of the cloth, 
yet we are not precluded from the use of extra weft or 
warp to form checks. But of course the cloth will cease 


to be purely plain, twill, or satin, as the case may be. We 
will take as an extreme instance a cloth, say such as a 
repp, in which the warp predominates very largely, and 
introduce coloured threads in the warp; these colours 
will stand out very prominently, because the modification 
usually produced by interweaving with the weft is not pre- 
sent here, the weft being so completely hid. Then if we 
wish to form a check upon this, our coloured weft must not 
interweave with the warp in the usual manner, or it will be 
lost, but it must be thrown to the surface of the cloth, 
and interweave with the warp threads only at intervals. 
In fact, it must form either a twill or satin with the weft 
predominating, and by this means and this only we may 
form our checks as distinctly as we please. If it is a 
cloth in which the weft forms the surface, then the 
coloured extra threads must be in the warp. 

In forming figures upon such cloths as we are speaking 
of, the use of colour is most effective. Suppose the warp 
is a light colour and the weft a dark one, and that a 
figure is formed by bringing the weft to the surface, the 
warp preponderating on the surface all over the ground ; 
in the ground the colour of the warp only will be seen, 
the weft being hid, and in the figure the weft only will be 
seen, so that the pattern will stand out very prominently. 
If the colours be properly suited to each other, so as to 
form an harmonious contrast, the effect will be most 

Then in using colour for the ornamentation of fabrics 
when the coloured threads form part of the groundwork 
of the cloth, it is evident we must take into account 
the structure of the fabric, and only use the colour in 
such manner as will be effective. When we are using 
extra colour or coloured threads for the sole purpose 
of ornamentation the conditions are quite different — 
whether we use them in the weft, in the warp, or in both 
— from those which exist when the coloured threads form 
the ground fabric; when they are extra threads we may 
treat them as we please, bring them to the surface in long 


or short periods, or bind them into the cloth, so as to 
intermix the colour with the colour of the ground threads, 
and so modify their effect. In short, we employ them for 
decorative purposes only, and need to use proper discretion 
in their disposal, so as to produce the effect desired, 
with little or no regard to the structure of the ground 
fabric, except such as has been previously pointed out. 

130. The Use of Threads of mixed Colours.— In 
speaking of coloured threads we generally mean threads 
which are one colour throughout, but we are not 
necessarily confined to coloured threads of this descrip- 
tion in ornamenting fabrics. We may twist two 
differently coloured threads together, and so produce a 
parti-coloured one, known in the trade as " grandereile ;" 
or we mix fibres of different colours together, in the 
preparation of the material for spinning, and so produce 
" mixture " yarn ; or we may have the fibres of which 
the thread is to be composed printed in one of the inter- 
mediate stages of preparation, and so produce the 
"melange" yarn; or we may have the threads printed. 
From such fancy yarns as these we may obtain very 
pretty effects upon fabrics which may be perfectly plain 
in their structure ; or if a pattern is formed in the fabric, 
it may be of the simplest kind. The whole effect may 
be a mixture, or melange. We may introduce the 
twisted, coloured, or printed threads into otherwise solid 
coloured fabrics, or coloured threads into mixture fabrics. 
These extra threads, as we may term them, may either 
form part of the ground cloth or interweave simply as 
ornamenting threads, according to the kind of effect to 
be produced, whether it is to be of a mild, tame character 
or a striking one. In fact, we have a wide field thrown 
open for the exercise of ingenuity in the use of these 
fancy threads. The use of " mixture " or " melange " 
threads generally is for the production of a tertiary 
coloured effect upon the fabric with very small patches 
of strong local colour; and if several striking colours 
are introduced into the mixture it does this in the most 


effective manner. The intimate mixture of the fibres in 
the yarn will, when woven into the cloth, insure to the 
utmost the tertiary effect being procured, while on 
moderately close observation the local colours will assert 
themselves, and even at a distance will give a bright, 
sharp freshness to the whole. 

In cloths where no specially striking effect is intended, 
the best means of ornamentation and of producing 
prettiest effects is by the use of " mixture " threads. 

131. Taney Yarns in Fabrics. — In addition to fancy 
yarns composed of differently coloured fibres, or by 
the twisting of differently coloured threads, many 
very good effects are obtained by twisting two threads 
together of the same or different colours, at different 
degrees of tension, so that one wraps loosely round 
the other — say, for instance, a thick thread twisting 
more or less loosely round a fine one — and presents 
to the eye a kind of crimped effect ; this, when woven 
into the fabric, if judiciously used will be very 
pretty. Again, loops may be formed upon the thread by 
one thread running in loosely during the process of 
twisting while the other is held tight, or one thread may 
be given off at a regular rate of speed, while the other is 
varied in speed, so producing not only different thick- 
nesses of thread, but, if the two threads are of different 
colours, different coloured effects. All these give us 
powers of ornamentation merely by their introduction 
into an ordinary fabric. We now come to the question 
of the ornamentation of fabrics in their structure, 
and we will consider it first apart from the question 
of utility. 

132. Ornamentation of Fabrics in their Structure. 
— In plain cloths we can form patterns in one way only 
— namely, by the formation of ribs, which may run either 
lengthwise or crosswise in the piece ; these ribs we may 
vary in size, or place at varying distances, but we 
have no further power of ornamentation. In ordinary 
twill cloths we have similar ribs running diagonally 


across the fabric, which we may vary in size and distance 
apart, but unquestionably we obtain the best effects when 
we either combine these diagonal ribs with small figures, 
or simply run small figures in a diagonal direction. 
There is no field so wide for obtaining different patterns 
in the structure of the cloth as in the combination of 
diagonal lines and figures. The variety of lines, heavy 
and light, and the combination of forms give us a power 
of ornamentation which is not to be exceeded by any 
other method where we do not call in the aid of colour. 
There is no branch of the subject which should be more 
carefully studied by the textile designer, especially where 
his province is as much the designing of fabrics as of 

Next we come to the formation of figures by the 
ground weft, warp, or both — that is, by the material 
which forms the ground fabric ceasing to interweave, and 
so forming pattern by the weft, or warp, or both, lying 
loosely on the surface. By this mode of figuring we 
can produce any variety of form in the figures, and, 
by proper regard to the order of binding or inter- 
weaving, ornament the fabric to any extent, the only 
limitation being a due regard for the structure of the 
fabric. Then we have figuring with extra material, 
which again gives us the power of introducing additional 
colours, as well as the formation of distinct patterns on 
the surface ; so that our power of forming patterns is 
extended beyond that when the figures are formed by the 
ground material alone, and if we combine the two 
methods we have a still further extended power. In fact, 
the extent and elaborateness of our designs are without 
limit, and may fairly be likened to the use of colour 
and brush. Figuring with double cloths may perhaps best 
be compared with the use of extra material, as we have 
not only a figure of one colour upon a ground of a totally 
different colour, each formed by different materials, but 
any amount of figuring may be introduced without 
affecting the structure of the cloth, and moreover, the 

234 design in Textile fabrics. [chap. tx. 

fabric is reversible and may be used on either side. The 
advantage of figuring with double cloth, apart from the 
question of utility, is that the figure is perfectly solid 
in colour, upon a ground equally solid. 

Gauze, net, and lace are forms of ornamentation 
quite different from all other classes of fabric, and for 
lightness and elegance of fabric, as well as for the 
variety which may be introduced into the design, far 
exceed all others. Gauze is perhaps the most simple, 
and in the forms in which it is now generally made 
is probably the easiest of production ; at any rate, it 
possesses one advantage over both the others — it can be 
combined with ordinary woven fabric, either for the 
purpose of varying the design, or for ornamenting a 
cloth of closer or heavier texture. The other two will 
give a greater degree of openness and lightness. 

Plush ornamentation is peculiar to itself; it may be 
made to form simple figures, or the pattern may be in 
the plush itself. In what are commonly known as velvets — 
that is, where the pile is very short — the ornamentation is 
usually confined to the use of colour, in stripe or check 
form, or the formation of figures by the pile ; but in 
what are commonly termed plushes, where the pile is 
longer, the ornamentation more generally takes the form 
of making the pattern in the plush itself, either by 
waving, crimping, or varying the length of the pile, or 
some such expedient. We have used the terms velvet 
and plush here in the popular sense, not with the in- 
tention of making a distinction between the two, for 
they may be taken as being practically synonymous, so 
far as the manufacture of such articles is concerned. 

133. Ornamentation by different Tension of the 
Threads, etc. — In addition to the methods of ornamenta- 
tion we have referred to, there are many others which 
can scarcely be called regular, but are the result of some 
freak or fancy on the part of the designer or manufac- 
turer — such, for instance, as the introduction of slack or 
tight ends in the warp, either singly or in numbers. 


Suppose we allow a single end at intervals to run into 
the cloth much slacker than the rest of the warp ; it will 
crimp all along as the cloth is formed, and if it be a 
different colour from the body of the cloth, it will assert 
itself very strongly and produce quite a novel effect. 
Again, if a number of these threads have different 
degrees of tension, and of different colours, the effect 
will be still more novel. Another use of tight and slack 
ends is to form crimped stripes. Suppose one portion of 
the cloth is woven quite plain, and the rest twilled, 
or satin, the two running side by side in stripe form : — 
the twill or satin, if not very much more closely set in 
the reed, will permit much more weft being inserted than 
the plain ; then if the warp threads come off separate 
beams, one for the satin and the other for the plain, and 
the latter is allowed to go in quite slack, the weft as it is 
beaten in will carry the plain cloth forward, while the 
satin portion is quite straight, and so cause regular 
crimps or waves in the plain portion. These crimps may 
be increased or decreased, made more or less prominent 
by varying the setting of the warp threads in the plain 
or satin portions, or by varying the tension at which the 
warp threads are held. 

134. Utility combined with Ornament. — We may 
now consider the question of utility combined with 
ornamentation, or, in other words, in all the various 
forms of ornamentation with which we have dealt, 
examine into their effects upon the fabric, and see how 
far they will affect its utility. Beginning again with plain 
cloth, as we have shown, when warp and weft are 
equal, there is no ornamentation except by the use of 
colour \ but we have a strong useful fabric, not heavy, 
except so far as the thickness of the threads of which it 
is composed makes it heavy, and not of a close or com- 
pact texture, owing to the order of interweaving of its 
threads, but yet strong and useful for the quantity of mate- 
rial which it contains. If we ornament it in its struc- 
ture, it must be by the alteration of the relative quantities 


and thickness of the warp and weft; and in doing so 
we increase closeness of texture, generally also bulk and 
weight of fabric. By increased closeness we obtain 
necessarily increased strength ; for although each unit of 
strength, as represented by any single thread, may be 
less than in an ordinary plain cloth, the combination of 
these units will give greater strength to the whole. So 
that by ornamentation we increase usefulness both in 
wearing properties and in the power of retaining warmth 
as an article of clothing. 

When we ornament by twilling, we again obtain 
practically the same results — namely, increased weight, 
strength, and closeness of texture. The order of inter- 
weaving of necessity produces these results, but in 
different degrees, by the different kinds of twilling ; so 
that it becomes necessary for the designer in making his 
pattern to consider thoroughly its effect upon the fabric, 
and the kind of fabric he desires to produce ; and the 
relative quantities of warp and weft must be carefully- 
proportioned to the design of the twill. 

When we come to figuring with the material which 
forms the ground fabric — that is, when the fabric is of a 
given structure, and a figure formed by the weft and 
warp ceasing to interweave, and one coming to the surface 
as loose material — whatever may be the structure of the 
ground cloth, the formation of the figure must in some 
degree detract from it. If the ground is plain, we shall 
have a firm texture, though perhaps somewhat open ; 
but when figure is formed, we have positively no texture, 
simply so much loose material ; in that case the useful- 
ness of the fabric is decreased, and just in the ratio of 
the amount of figures introduced. If the figures be 
small and closely set together, the texture of the cloth as 
a whole will be looser ; if they be large, then it will give 
extreme looseness in the figured portion, and will not 
much affect the ground, which will be in proportionately 
large patches ; but the cloth will be very irregular in 
texture, and this of itself is a serious drawback. Then, 


for useful purposes, the small figures, equally distributed, 
are preferable ; for if the texture be very much loosened, 
we may to some extent compensate for it by the intro- 
duction of more material, either in warp or weft, or 
both, and treating it somewhat as we should treat a 
twilled cloth. Whatever applies to figures upon plain 
cloth also applies equally to figures upon any other 
ground, when the figure is formed by loose material. 

If our figures are formed upon the principle of 
diapers or damasks — that is, by the warp and weft 
merely changing places, and still preserving the same 
order of interweaving — then our figures may be as large 
or as frequent as we please, without in any degree im- 
pairing the utility of the fabric. 

When we introduce extra materials for the formation 
of figures, we in no degree affect the ground cloth, either 
for better or worse ; it is merely applying so much 
colour to the surface, adding certainly to the bulk of the 
fabric at that point, but not necessarily increasing its 
usefulness, the extra material being in most cases simply 
laid loosely on the surface, so that it possesses no special 
wearing qualities, and will not add materially to the 
powers of the cloth for keeping warm. Of course we 
are speaking of the formation of spot figures by extra 
material. If the extra weft or warp be distributed over 
the whole area of the fabric, then it becomes a different 
thing; especially if it be bound into the cloth at the 
back, for it will then form a kind of double cloth, 
and often really two distinct fabrics. Of course 
in such cases we add to the fabric in every way ; we in- 
crease bulk, strength, and closeness of texture, and 
have a better wearing and a warmer article, as well as 
one more ornamented. Double cloths should always be 
treated under two distinct heads — first, when one of the 
cloths forms merely a lining; and second, where the 
two cloths exchange places to form patterns. The former 
may include all cloths where either two warps and two 
wefts, or where one warp and two wefts are used, if 


one surface be different to the other in texture and in 
pattern, and where one is intended for the wearing 
surface and the _ other merely as a lining. The second 
should include all cloths which are reversible — that is, 
which are wearable on either side, or in which either side 
may be made the face — whether there are two distinct 
cloths, or merely two faces formed either by two wefts 
and one warp, or two warps and one weft. In the first 
class will be included all fabrics which have a fancy face 
and a plain back, and which for wearing purposes are 
extremely useful. The texture of the face is usually 
fine, and ornamented according to the purpose to which 
it is to be applied, possessing generally all the qualities 
of useful fabrics. The back is of a more or less plain 
character according to the weight to be obtained, or 
it may be governed by the pattern and texture of the 
face, so that they may bear a proper relation to each 
other, its chief purpose being to give weight, strength, 
and warmth. In producing heavy cloths, as those re- 
quired for overcoats, this principle is absolutely neces- 
sary, because the proper weight and texture of cloth 
could not be obtained in a single cloth. If we obtained 
weight it would be at the cost of fineness, and fineness 
would be obtained at the cost of weight ; but by the 
combination of two cloths, or two surfaces, we can comply 
with both requirements at once. 

"When the cloth is reversible, both fabrics or both 
sides of the same fabric are equal in quality and texture, 
though perhaps different in colour. Each surface may 
remain the same throughout, or they may exchange 
places. Their exchanging places is merely for the 
purpose of forming patterns ; it will not affect the 
structure or utility of the fabric as a whole. If the 
fabric consist of two separate cloths these will exchange 
places bodily, each preserving its own individuality ; 
they continue to weave weft with warp in each cloth as 
though no exchange had taken place. If it consist 
simply of two wefts and one warp, or two warps and 


one weft, the wefts or the warps only exchange places ; 
but on whichever side of the fabric they are weaving, 
they still preserve the same order of interweaving weft 
with warp. In fact, it may be said to be a double diaper, 
or damask, inasmuch as weft and warp always bear the 
same relations to each other in their orders of inter- 
weaving, whichever may be uppermost, so that whether 
figured or plain, the utility of the fabric is not impaired 
in the slightest degree. With respect to gauze fabrics 
we need not say much as to their utility ; they are 
essentially fancy or ornamental cloths. Strength they 
may possess, but for warmth and general wear they are 
not specially suited, so that we need only regard them, 
except under exceptional circumstances, from a decora- 
tive point of view, and if we should have to consider 
them for purposes of utility, it will be in combination 
with other orders of working, and the conditions which 
apply to other fabrics will also apply to them. 

Plushes are essentially useful fabrics, as well as 
heavy ones, and in ornamenting them we very rarely 
impair their utility, except in the slightest possible degree. 
The body of the cloth must at all times be a very strong, 
compact structure, so as to hold the pile with sufficient 
firmness \ and whatever ornamentation is introduced 
either with or in addition to the pile, or whatever is 
done with the pile, will not much impair the structure of 
the body. The wearing surface may be more or less 
affected, but that is not generally a serious matter, but 
the body of the cloth will never be much affected. This 
is equally true of both weft and warp pile. 

When we ornament with coloured threads we do not 
affect the utility ; the structure is not altered. We 
determine the structure of the cloth to suit it for the 
purpose to which it is to be applied, and then vary the 
colours of the threads of which it is composed, so that 
we first say what the cloth shall be, and then how it 
shall be ornamented with colour ; and although we may 
have to consider the structure in applying the colour 


yet the colour cannot affect the structure nor its utility 
as a fabric. If we ornament by varying the degrees 
of tension of the threads, then we do impair the struc- 
ture, for any strain thrown upon the cloth will be thrown 
upon the threads which are tight, and as they are only a 
portion of the whole, they cannot be expected to bear as 
much strain without fracture as if the strain were equally 
distributed over the whole fabric. Consequently fabrics 
of this kind must be made for purely ornamental pur- 
poses, and never considered as articles of utility, unless 
the slack threads are very few indeed. 

135. The Special Knowledge required in the Manu- 
facture of Fabrics. — We may now understand the 
special knowledge required in the manufacture of textile 
fabrics, and upon what it is dependent. We have first 
to consider the nature of fabrics, and the uses to which 
they are to be applied. Having determined what we 
require, the character of the fibre from which the fabric 
is to be made, and the structure of the thread, we must 
next enter fully into the question of . the structure of the 
cloth, considering it first from the useful point of -view, 
then from the ornamental, or from a combination of the 
two. In any case thorough mastery of the different 
structures, of the various modes of ornamenting in the 
structure, and also of the effect of ornament upon 
structure, so as to know the extent to which utility will 
be impaired or increased by the particular method of 
ornamenting, is absolutely necessary. Given all this, 
along with knowledge of the mechanical operations of 
weaving and also of decorative art, and the designer 
possesses all the materials for the successful following of 
his vocation ; he will only further require those qualities 
which are essential in every walk in life — energy, perse- 
verance, and a right application of his industry and 


Angle of Twill.— The angle which a twill forms with the weft or 

Backed Cloths.— Cloths having a back woven upon them which 
serves as a lining. 

Beams. —Rollers upon which the warp threads are wound side by- 
side before being put in the loom. There are also cloth beams upon 
which the cloth is wound as it is formed. 

Binding in Cloths.— The securing together in the process of 
weaving two separate cloths, or extra material used for figuring or 
other purposes on an ordinary single cloth. 

Bobbin-Net. — An open perforated fabric formed by a series of 
threads crossing and partially twisting round each other. 

Checks. — Patterns which are usually formed by coloured threads 
crossing each other at right angles. 

Chenille. — A thread having loose fibres projecting from it. 

Choking the Shed.— When the warp threads are so numerous, or 
of so rough character that they will not pass through between each 
other, and separate readily into two portions between which the 
shuttle may pass. 

Cockling. — When the cloth, instead of presenting a smooth, even 
surface, is irregular, some portions standing up in bubbles. 

Cords. 5 — Cloths with ribs which run longitudinally, or in the direc- 
tion of the length of the fabric. 

Corduroys. — Cords formed with cut pile. 

Crammed Stripes. — Striped fabrics in which one portion contains 
more warp threads in a given space than another portion. 

Cutting Plush. — Severing the threads which are to form the 
u pile " or surface of the fabric. 

Damask. — A cloth said to be named from the city of Damascus, 
formerly made of silk, but now of worsted or linen chiefly. 



Density of Pile. — The closeness with which the threads of velvet 
or plush are set together. 

Diagonals. — Patterns arranged to run in a diagonal direction 
across the fabric- 
Diaper. — A cloth similar to damask, but with the pattern of a 
" chequered " character. 

Double Cloths. — Two separate fabrics woven and fastened together 
in the process of weaving. 

Doups. — A special arrangement of healds used for gauze weaving, 
and so arranged that they may cause the warp threads to cross each 

Elongated Twills. — Twills which do not run across the fabric at 
an angle of forty-five degrees. 

Extra Warp or Weft Figures.— Figures formed upon a fabric by 
material which takes no part in the formation of the body of the 

Figured Cloths. — Fabrics having a pattern formed upon them by 
the order of interweaving of the weft and warp of which they are com- 

Figured Twills. — Figures running diagonally across the fabric. 

Floats. — Where the weft and warp of which a fabric is composed 
do not interweave with each other. Sometimes patterns are formed 
by " floats " only, and sometimes "floats " are formed accidentally in 
the process of weaving, and produce imperfection. 

Flushing is sometimes used in the sense of "floats." 

Fraying. — One set of threads slipping upon the other, and so pro- 
ducing imperfections in the fabric. 

Gauze. — A light perforated fabric in which the warp threads are 
made to twist more or less round each other. 

Healds. — An arrangement for effecting the separation of the warp 
threads, so that the shuttle carrying the weft can be passed between, 
them* The heild consists of a series of cords having an eye in the 
centre, and attached at each extremity to a flat piece of wood, called 
the "heald shaft," the warp thread being passed through the eye of 
the heald. Whenever the heald shaft is raised or depressed the warp 
threads are also raised or depressed, and so the warp is separated into 
two portions for the shuttle to pass between. 

Jacquard Machine. — An apparatus for separating the warp threads 
in a similar manner to healds but on a more extended scale, and con- 
sequently facilitating the production of elaborate patterns. 


Lace. — An open perforated fabric produced by the threads of which 
it is composed being twisted together in such a manner as t© form 

Lappet Figuring. — Figures or patterns produced on a fabric by a 
warp thread being made to cross and recross on its surface by means 
of a "lappet frame." 

Madras Muslin, or sometimes called Indian Muslin. — A light 
fabric figured by the insertion of thick weft threads, which are cut 
away where there is to be no figure. 

Net. — A fabric formed in a manner somewhat similar to lace, but 
having its perforation equal. 

Pile. — The threads which issue from and form the surface of fabrics 
such as velvets. 

Plain Cloth. — A fabric in which the warp and weft threads are 
placed at right angles to each other, and which interweave alternately. 

Plush.— A fabric the surface of which is covered by short threads 
which issue from the body of the cloth. 

Repps. — Fabrics ribbed across the piece. 

Sham Plush. — An imitation of a plush fabric produced by using 
Chenille weft. Sometimes sham plushes are made by " raising " — that 
is, dragging — the fibres partly out of a cloth of ordinary loosely con- 
structed fabrics. 

Shed.— "When the warp threads are separated for the shuttle to 
pass through. 

Shuttle. — A small apparatus for carrying the weft, and which is 
passed to and fro through the warp. 

Swivel Shuttles. — An arrangement of small shuttles for forming 
figures on a fabric, somewhat after the manner of embroidery. 

Tabby. — A name commonly applied to plain cleth. 

Twill. — A pattern running diagonally across the fabric. 

Velvet. — A short or closely shorn plush. 

Warp. — The threads w r hich run lengthwise in a fabric. 

Weft.— The threads which run crosswise in a fabric. 

Yarn. — The threads of which a fabric is composed. 


ADVANTAGES of structure of 
-"■ woollen threads, 24 
Advantages of structure of worsted 

threads, 27 
Allotment of area to figures, 160 
Alteration of twills to increase 

bulk of cloth, 12 
Alteration of twills to increase 

strength of cloth, 13 
Angle of twill, Effect of, 41 
Arrangement of designs upon paper, 


BACKED cloths, 74 
Binding cloths, 76 

— double cloths, 90, 97 

, relations of pattern, to 

facilitate, 90 
Binding extra warp figures, 143 

— Patterns formed by, 79, 100 

— weft pile and structure of cloth , 

— velveteens, 200 
Bobbin net, 191 

Bulk of cloth, to increase by altera- 
tion of twill, 12 
Brussels carpet, 221 

CARPETS, Brussels, 221 
— Scotch or Kidderminster, 

— Tapestry, 223 
Checks, Figured, 128 

— figures, and stripes from combi- 
nation of twills, 50 

Chenille, 208 

Classification of pile or plush fabrics, 

Cloths, Double, 15 

— Double-faced, 16 

Value of knowledge of, 73 

Cloths, Backed, 75 

— increase of bulfc by alteration of 
twill, 12 

strength by alteration of 

twill, 13 

— Reversible, 80 
Figured, 81 

— with two wefts and one warp, 74 
warps and one weft, 85 

— Two separate, 87 

Relations of, to each other, 88 

Binding, 90 

of same quality but different 

pattern, 91 

of same pattern but different 

quality, 94 

where both quality and pat- 
tern are different, 96 

— Three and four-ply, 104 

Cloth and thread, Relation between, 

Colours, Figuring with several, 150 
Colour, Ornamenting fabrics with, 


— Threads of mixed, 231 
Combined patterns, Relation of, to 

cloth, 58 

when complete, 60 

Combinations of twills, Patterns 

produced by, 451 

How to calculate, 46 

in stripe form, 50 

check form, 53 

— Method of joining patterns in, 54 

— of re-arranged or irregular twills, 

different patterns in stripes, 

of twills occupying different 

numbers of ends, 57 

— of damask and repp, 136 

— of extra weft and ground figures, 



Combination of extra warp and 

weft, 155 
gauze with other orders of 

weaving, 167 
figures with extra warp 

figures, 183 

plush, 185 

Considerations in structure of 

fabrics, 225 
Corded or ribbed fabrics, 6 
Cords, Diagonal, 208 
Corduroys, 207 
Cotton, 22 

— Preparing and spinning, 27 
Cutting plush, Effects of, 203 
Crossings, Figuring in gauze by 

various, 165 

-T)AMASKS, 133 
■*S — and repp combined, 136 
Density of pile, 206 
Designs, Arrangement of, upon 
paper, 33 

— Floral, 121 

Designing fabrics, Object to be 

kept in view in, 1 
Diagonals, Figured, 126 

— cords, 208 
Diaper, 131 

Different patterns combined in 
stripes, 69 

— tension of threads, Ornamenta- 
tion by, 234 

Distribution of figures, 116 

gauze figures on plain ground, 


pile, 202 

Double cloths, 15, 73 

— faced cloths, 16 

— cloths, Value of knowledge of, 73 
■ Binding, 90 

Relation of quality and pat- 
tern in, 92 
Doups, Use of, 179 

■pFFECTS of cutting plush, 203 
-^ — Special, produced by yarn, 

— of yarn upon fabric, 4 

twist of yarn, 5 

relations of warp and weft 

upon fabric, 6 

angle of twill, 41 

comb'nation of different twills 

in stripe form, 50 
Effect upon fabric of patterns in 

combination, 55 
Elongated twills t 64 

Extra warp, Figuring with, 138 

stripes, 138 

figures, Binding, 143 

— weft figures, 145 

— and ground figures combined, 147 

— warp and weft combined, 155 

— weft figuring upon gauze, 185 

TiABRICS, Object to be kept in 
-*- view in designing, 1 

— Theory of structure of, 2 

— Effect of yarn upon, 4 

of relations of warp and weft 

upon, 6 

— Corded or ribbed, 6 

— Twilled, 103 

— Plush or pile, 19 

— Ornamentation of, in their struc- 
ture, 29, 232 

— Relation of combined patterns to, 

— General comparison of, 225 

— Considerations in structure of, 

— Ornamenting, with colour, 228 

— fancy, Yarns in, 232 

Face to back cloth/ Relations of, in 
both quality and pattern, 100 

Fibres, Preparing and spinning 
into yarn, 22 

Figured twills, 35, 66 

when complete, 69 

— cloths, 112 

— reversible cloths, 81 

— stripes, 122 

— checks, 128 

— diagonals, 126 

— plushes, 209 
upon gauze, 219 

— velvet, 216, 218 

Figures, stripes, and checks from 
combination of twills, 50 

— Distribution of, 116 

— and ground, Relations of, 119 

— Allotment of area to, 160 

— Binding extra warp, 143 

— Extra weft, 145 

— Swivel, 146 

— extra and ground, Combined, 147 

— formed by gauze and plain cloth, 

— Gauze upon twilled ground, 181 
combined with extra warp 

figures, 183 

— Lappet and whip-net, upon gauze, 

Figuring with two cloths, 91 

ground material, 114 

extra warp, 138 



Figuring with several colours, 150 
plain gauze, 164 

— by various crossings in gauze, 165 

— with extra weft upon gauze, 185 
Flax, 22 

— Preparing and spinning, into 
yarn, 27 

Floral designs, 121 

/^.AUZE combined with plush, 185 
^ — Figuring upon, with extra 
weft, 185 3 

— Lappet and whip-net figures upon, 

— Materials from which to make, 188 

— Plush figures upon, 219 

— cloths, 18, 162 

— Structure of, 162 

— Plain, 163 

Figuring with, 164 

Gauze, Figuring by various cross- 
ings, 165 

■ — Combination of, with other orders 
of weaving, 167 

— Striped, 171 

— and plain cloth, forming figures, 

— Figures, Distribution of upon 
plain ground, 174 

— ground, Plain figures upon, 175 

— "Weft or warp figures upon, 175 

— figures upon twill ground, 181 
combined with extra warp 

figures, 183 
General comparison of fabrics, 225 
Grooves in cloth, 111 
Ground material, Figiiring with, 114 

— and figtire, Relations of, 119 

HEALDS, Patterns which may or 
may not be worked with a 
small number of, 51, 53, 58 

TNCREASING bulk of cloth by 

•*■ alteration of twill, 12 

— strength of cloth by alteration of 

twill, 13 
Imitating skins of animals, 204 
Inequality of woollen threads, 24 
Irregular or re-arranged twills com- 
bined, 62 

JOINING patterns in combination, 
Method of, 54 

-*-*- carpets, 106 

Knowledge of double cloths, Value 
of, 73 

T ACE, 192. 

■^ Lappet weaving, 158 

— and whip-net figures upon gauze, 


MADRAS muslin, 190 
Matelasses, 109 
Materials from which to make 

gauze, 188 
Method of joining patterns in com- 
bination, 54 

JJET, whip, and bobbin, 191 

OBJECT to be kept in view in 
^ designing fabrics, 1 
Ordinary satins, 13 
Ornament combined with utility, 

— Relation of, to structure, 29 
Ornamental use of satins, 15 
Ornamentation of fabrics in their 

structure, 29, 232 

— and use of double cloths, 111 
Ornamenting by different tensions 

of threads, 236 

— fabrics with colour, 228 
figures, 233 

— pile fabrics, 214 

T)AISLEY shawls, 153 
-*- Paper, Arrangement of de- 
signs upon, 33 
Patterns having a twilled basis, 34 

— produced by combination of 
twills, 45 

— Method of joining, in combina- 
tion, 54 

— in combination, Effects of upon 
the fabric, 55 

— combined, Relation of to cloth, 58 

— formed by binding, 79, 100 

— of double clotb, Relations of to 
facilitate binding, 90 

— and quality, Relation of in double 
cloth, 92 

Patterns which may or may not be 
worked with a small number of 
healds, 51, 53, 58 



Pile or plush fabrics, 149 

Classification of, 194 

weft 194 

— Distribution of, 202 

— Effects of cutting, 203 

— Density of, 206 

— warp, 210 

— without wires, 214 

- fabrics, Ornamenting, 214 
Plain cloth, 4 

— gauze, 163 

Figuring with, 164 

— cloth and gauze, Figures formed 
by, 172 

— figures upon gauze ground, 175 

— ground, Distribution of gauze 
figures on, 174 

Plush or pile fabrics, 19 

— combined with gauze, 185 

— figured, 209 

— sham, 210 

— figures upon gauze, 219 

— Special effects in, 220 
Preparing and spinning the fibres 

into yarn, 22 

cotton, 27 

flax, 27 

— - silk yarns, 28 

Production of patterns by re- 
arrangement, 42 
Properties of wool, 20 

— and varieties of plushes, 223 

QUALITY and pattern, Relations 
of in double cloth, 92 
Quilts, 106 

"DELATIONS of warp and weft, 
-"* and effect upon fabric, 6 
Relation between thread and cloth, 

— of ornament to structure, 29 

combined pattern to fabric, 58 

two separate cloths to each 

other, 88 
patterns of double cloth to 

facilitate binding, 90 
quality and pattern in double 

cloth, 92 
face to back cloth in both 

quality and pattern, 100 

figure and. ground, 119 

Re-arranged or irregular twills 

combined, 62 
Re - arrangement, Production of 

patterns by, 42 
Reversible cloths, 80 
figured, 81 

Repps, 8 

— and damask combined, 136 

Ribbed or corded fabrics, 6 

<J ATINS, ordinary, 13 
^ — used for ornamental pur- 
poses, 15 

— order, Twills arranged in, 36 
Scotch or Kidderminster carpets, 

Separate cloths, Two, 87 
Relations of to each other, 

Several colours, Figuring with, 150 
Sham plush, 210 
Shawl, Paisley, 153 
Silk, 22 

— yarns, preparing, 28 
Simple Twills, 30 

Skins of animals, Imitating, 204 
Special effects produced by yarns, 

206 • 
in plushes, 220 

— knowledge required in the manu- 
facture of fabrics, 240 

Spinning, Preparing and, the fibres 
into yarn, 22 

cotton, 27 

flax, 27 

Striped gauzes, 171 
Stripes, Figured, 122 

— which differ from ground, 123 

— Extra warp, 140 

— checks, and figures, from com- 
bination of twills, 50 

— Combination of different patterns 
in, 69 

Structure of gauze, 162 

cloth and binding weft pile, 195 

velvet, 211 

fabrics, Considerations in, 225 

Theory of, 2 

threads, 20 

woollen threads, Advantages 

of, 24 
worsted threads, Advantages 

of, 27 

— Ornamentation of fabrics in their, 

— Relation of ornament to, 29 
Strength of cloth increased by alter- 

ation of twill, 13 
Swivel figures, 146 

rnAPESTRY carpets, 223 
•*- Tension of threads, Ornamenta- 
tion by different, 234 
Theory of structure of fabrics, 2 



Threads of mixed colours, Use of, 

23 L 
Threads, structure of, 20 

— and cloth, "Relations between, 20 
Three and four ply cloths, 104 
Twilled Fabrics, 10 - 

— basis, Patterns having a, 31 
Twilled ground, Gauze figures upon, 

Twilling, 30 
Twills, Alteration of to increase bulk 

of cloth, 12 

— Alteration of, to increase strength 
of cloth, 13 

Twills, Simple, 30 

— Figured, 35, 66 

— arranged in satin order, 36 

— Effect of angle of, 41 

— How to calculate combinations of, 

— Patterns produced by combina- 
tion of, 45 

— Occupying different numbers of 
ends, Combination of, 57 

— irregular or re-arranged, Com- 
bined, 62 

— Elongated, 64 

— Figured, when complete, 69 
Twist of yarn, Effect of, 5 

Two wefts and one warp, Cloth, 
with, 74 

— warps and one weft, Cloths witL, 

— separate cloths, 87 

Relations of, to each other, 

Tucks, Woven in, 110 

USE of doups, 170 
— and ornamentation of doubk 
cloth, 111 
— of satins for ornamental purposes, 

Utility combined with ornament, 

VALUE of knowledge of double 
cloth, 73 
Various crossings in gauze, Figur- 
ing by, 165 
Varieties and properties of plushes, 

Velvet, Structure of, 211 

— Figured, 216, 218 
Velveteen, 196 

— Binding, 200 

WARP and weft, Meaning of, 3 

v v Relations of, and effect 

upon fabric, 6 

— extra, Figuring with, 138 
stripes, .140 

— figures, Binding extra, 143 
Extra, 145 

— pile, 210 
Weft pile, 194 

binding and structure of cloth, 


— or warp figures upon gauze, 175 
When combined patterns are com- 
plete, 60 

Whip-net, 191 

Wool, Properties of, 20 

Woollen yarn, 22 

Irregularities of, 24 

Advantages of structure of, 24 

Worsted yarn, 25 

Worstod yarn, Advantages of struc- 
ture of, 27 
Woven tucks, 110 

YARN, Effect of, upon the fabric, 4 
twist of, 5 

— Fancy, in fabrics, 232 

— Preparing and spinning the fibres 

— into, 22 

Special effects produced by, 206 

— Woollen, 22 

— Worsted, 25 



NK8806 .A84 stack 

Ashenhurst, Thos. R/Design in textile fa 

3 1962 00074 2738